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Language Typology Michael Opper – Ling 111 December 5, 2011 What is Typology? • ‘Taxonomy’ • ‘Classification’ • Classifying phenomena into types • As linguists, we are interested in classifying languages into types. Languages and Typology • By comparing several languages, we discover recurring patterns. • Based on our observations, we try to explain linguistic universals • A common origin for all of the world’s languages seems to be an obvious explanation for universals. However, this is speculative and untestable. • Language Typology, as will be discussed today, classifies languages into types based on linguistic phenomena • Morphology – Word Formation • Syntax – Determiners and Word Order • Phonology – Possible Syllables and Phonemes Morphology and Typology • Language Typology as a field probably began with morphological typology as proposed by Joseph Greenberg in the 1950s-1970s • Traditionally, languages have been classified into four types • Analytic – sequences of free morphemes/ word = morpheme • Agglutinative – Bound morphemes affix to stems and each morpheme is distinctively clear • Fusional – Bound morphemes affix to stems, but morpheme boundaries unclear • Polysynthetic – Entire clauses are single words • These categories are often not clear-cut. Continuum: Analytic to Polysynthetic Analytic Languages • Each word is a morpheme. • Purely analytic languages are called isolating languages, they do not use affixes to form words • Ex. Vietnamese Agglutinative Languages • Morphemes essentially have one form and are easy to identify in a given word. • Ex. Turkish Fusional Languages • Words are formed by adding bound morphemes to stems. However, these morphemes aren’t always easy to identify. • Ex. Spanish Polysynthetic Languages • Highly complex words are formed by combining several stems and affixes. Nouns become part of a verb stem. • Ex. West Greenlandic How many languages have verbs? A. Roughly 30% B. Roughly 75% C. Around 85-90% D. 100% All Languages Have Verbs! • • • • Verbs denote actions All languages also have nouns Nouns denote people, places, or things The distinction between nouns and verbs appears to be universal across languages of the world. • This entails that actions and entities are hard-wired concepts in human language/cognition and must be distinguished from one another. Adjectives are not Universal! • Certain parts of speech are universal, adjectives are not. • In English, we tend to use the copula ‘to be’ between a subject and an adjective. • Ex. The woman is tall • In several other languages, adjectives work like verbs forming a predicate about a verb. • Ex. Ilocano (an Austronesian language in the Philippines): Natayag daydyay Tall (marks the topic) ‘The woman is tall’ babae woman Adjectives in the World’s Languages Areal Effects • • • • • Europe was entirely blue Southeast Asia and China were entirely red Is this more than a coincidence? Languages in the same area tend to influence one another Through borrowing and shared developments it appears that patterns often reoccur throughout a given region even if the languages of that region are not closely related. • Ex. Chinese, Thai, and Vietnamese are NOT related languages, but share the following characteristics: • Verbal encoding for adjectives (as seen in the last slide) • SVO word order • Morphemes are monosyllabic Determiners • When we were studying syntax we saw that English NPs often require determiners: NP -> (Det) N. • Ex. The cheese, A book… • Sometimes English NPs do not require determiners: • Ex. Mom, Mike, Steve • NPs in some languages ALWAYS require determiners • Many languages NEVER use determiners in their NPs. One or the other… • Some languages have a definite article (the) or an indefinite article (a), but not both • Kutenai (language isolate in North America) has the definite but lacks the indefinite • Madang (Papua New Guinea) has the indefinite, but lacks the definite More about Determiners • In some languages a demonstrative (this/that) and definite article are the same, but their syntax may be different • Ex. Ute (Western US) • In some languages, the indefinite article and the number ‘one’ are the same. Syntactic order often disambiguates the difference. • Ex. Turkish Definite Articles Indefinite Articles Word Order • In HW4 we saw that Chinese and English have the same basic word order – Subject Verb Object • But this is not the only word order in languages of the world • Since there are three parameters in variation (Subjects, Verbs, and Objects), we should be able to see six word order patterns (by factorial operation 3! = 3*2*1 = 6): • • • • • • SOV SVO VSO VOS OSV OVS Which of the Following Orders is LEAST common? A. SVO B. SOV C. OSV D. VSO A Geographical Perspective on Word Order Why SOV, SVO, and VSO? • SOV and SVO are significantly more common than OSV. • The other orders (OVS, VSO, VOS) are essentially non-existent. • Pragmatics (explanations based on practicality) can explain the observed trends. • SV order can be attributed to the fact that there is a tendency for subjects to be topics – comments are made about topics after they are introduced as a human cognition universal • V and O are typically adjacent because they constitute a verb phrase • Movement occurs – VSO languages are SOV in deep structure and the verb moves to the front of the sentence. Take Ling 315 for more details on this phenomenon. Economy as an Explanation • Elements which are highly predictable in context tend to be omitted • Dropping of subject pronouns (pro-drop) is common in the world’s languages • Ex. Spanish Lo compré ‘I bought it” • Agreement makes pronouns redundant and uneconomical. • Note that English is not rich in agreement morphology. English sentences require subjects. • It rained • I bought it A Review of the Syllable • Earlier in the semester we learned about syllable structure: Syllable (σ) Onset (C)s Rhyme Nucleus (V) Coda (C)s • English can have consonant clusters in both the onset and coda: • Ex. strengths /strɛŋkθs/ • This is not true of all languages of the world. Possible Syllable Types • Which of the following syllable types are found in all languages? A. CV B. V C. CCV D. CVC CV is Universal • All documented languages have CV as a possible syllable type • In some of these languages a consonant in the onset is obligatory – a singleton V is impossible in these languages. Ex. Arabic • Some languages allow vowels to stand alone as their own syllables but do not allow coda consonants Ex. Naxi (Tibeto-Burman – China) • Consonant clusters are complicated. Some languages allow Consonant clusters in the onset position, but ban clusters in coda position. There are languages in which the reverse is true. Syllables Across the World Velar Nasal • English only allows velar nasals in the codas of syllables • There isn’t a letter in the Roman Alphabet for this sound. • When writing English (or transliterating sounds of other languages) we use the combination ng for the sound /ŋ/ • But just how rare are velar nasals? Velar Nasal from WALS Velar Nasal • From the map on the previous page, we saw that roughly half of the world’s languages completely lack a velar nasal phoneme. • Of the languages which do have a velar nasal, many only permit velar nasals in coda position. • No real theoretical claim can be made about this distribution. • Note the following areal distributions: • Velar nasals in both onset and coda are the norm in Southeast Asia and are quite common in Africa • Altaic languages (spoken in Central Asia) allow velar nasal onsets • Western European languages and Eastern Native American languages typically lack velar nasals. Front Rounded Vowels • Examples of front rounded vowels include: [y, Y, ø, œ, æ, a] • English lacks these vowels. • Note that English also lacks back vowels (except for ɑ as in father) • There’s a perceptual reason for this. Basically rounding correlates with backness and unrounding correlates with fronting. Front Rounded Vowels from WALS Front Rounded Vowels • As seen on the map, most languages lack front rounded vowels entirely • It appears that most of the languages which have front rounded vowels are not closely related (ex. French, Albanian, Mandarin, and Turkish) • The retention of front rounded vowels can be attributed to faithfulness and the disappearance or lack of front rounded vowels can be attributed to markedness. • Take 313 next semester to learn more about this issue. One last thing • Making empirical claims about language universals relies on detailed descriptions of hundreds of languages. • Of the 6000 or so languages spoken at the present, more than 50% are believed to become extinct by the end of the 21st century. The last living speaker of an endangered language dies approximately every two weeks. • Extensive language documentation at the present is necessary not only for the study of theoretical linguistics, but also to preserve records of our diverse world heritage.