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Resource-Based
View
Definitions and
Typologies
Daniel Degravel, 2007
R. B. V. Definitions
Resources
Daft, 1983, Barney, J., 1991
Resource = assets, capabilities, organizational processes, firm
attributes, information, knowledge, controlled by a firm that enable it
to conceive of and to implement strategies that improve its efficiency
and effectiveness
Strengths that a firm can use to conceive of and implement its
strategies
Wernerfelt, B., 1984, Hafeez, K., Malak, N. and Zhang, Y., 2002
Resource = anything that could be thought as a strength or a
weakness for a firm. Tangible and intangible assets tied permanently
or semi-permanently to the firm
- an input into the production process
- the basic unit for analysis
- anything tangible or intangible that can be owned or acquired
R. B. V. Definitions
Typology of Resources #1
Barney, J., 1991
1- Physical capital
Technology, plant, equipment, location, access to raw material
2- Human capital
Training, expertise, judgment, intelligence, relationships and insights of managers
and workers
3- Organizational capital
Organizational structure, planning, controlling and coordinating systems, informal
relations among groups within the firm and with outside groups
Typology of Resources #2
Hofer and Schendel, 1978, Grant, R., 1991
Mahoney, J. and Pandian, R., 1992
1- Physical resources
2- Financial resources
3- Human Resources
4- Organizational resources
5- Technological resources
6- Legal resources
7- Experience
8- Intangible resources
R. B. V. Definitions
Typology of Resources #3
Hafeez, K., Malak, N. and Zhang, Y., 2002
1- Physical assets
2- Intellectual assets
3- Cultural assets
R. B. V. Definitions
Competences
Selznick, 1957
Competence = things that an Organization does especially well in
comparison to its competitors
Hamel, G. and Prahalad, C., 1990
Competence = collective learning of the Organization, especially how
to coordinate diverse production skills and to integrate multiple
streams of technology
Penrose, 1959
Resource = stock. A resource can be defined independently from its
use
Capability (competence) = flow. It implies function and activity and
cannot be defined independently from its use. Capabilities are
created over time and may depend on History and use of resources in
an extremely complex (“path-dependent”) process
Hrebiniak, L. and Snow, C., 1980
Competence = aggregate of numerous specific activities that the
organization tends to perform better than other Organizations in a
similar environment
R. B. V. Definitions
Typology of Competences #1
Galbreath, J., 2005
Assets
HAS
Tangible
Intangible
Financial assets
Physical assets
Property rights
Organization
Reputation
Skills
DOES
The skills of the
Organization or its
capabilities
R. B. V. Definitions
Typology of Competences #2
Durand, T. 1996
1- Elementary assets and resources, tangible and intangible
Plant, equipment, products, software and brands
2- Cognitive competences, individual and collective, explicit and tacit
Knowledge, know-how, technologies, patents
3- Organizational processes and routines (coordinated deployment of resources)
Coordination mechanisms in the organization to combine the action of individuals into
collective tasks and achievements
4- Organizational structure
Structure including its internal and external dimensions (links with suppliers and customers)
5- Identity (Culture)
Corporate culture and behavior in the organization. Its shared values, its rites and taboos
are manifestations of the firm’s identity
R. B. V. Definitions
Typology of Competences #3
Sanchez, R., Heene, A. and Thomas, H., 1996
Competences
Strategy
Coordinated
deployment
Strategic Intent and Goals
Organization and
process for a
coordinated
deployment of assets
Process of
management
Knowledge
Intangible
Resources
Know-how
Assets
Explicit/tacit; individual/collective
Techniques
Brands
Software
Tangible
Operations
Products
Equipments
Buildings
R. B. V. Definitions
Typology of Competences #4
Hamel, G. and Prahalad, C., 1990
Final Products
Core Products
Core Competences
Maximum around 6
The Tree
R. B. V. Definitions
Typology of Competences #5
Hall, R., 1992
Functional
Linked to
members of
Organization
(“Behavioral”)
Know-how of
employees,
suppliers and
distributors
Cultural
“Positional”
Legal
Perception of
quality and
aptitude to learn
Reputation
Networks
Not Linked
to members
of
Organization
(Assetoriented)
Data-base
Contracts
Licenses
Business secrets
Intellectual
property rights
R. B. V. Definitions
Typology of Competences #6
Bajeva, A., Jamil, M. and Mascarenhas, B., 1998
1- Technological excellence
2- Process excellence
3- Relational excellence
Typology of Competences #7
Quelin, B and Arregle, J., 1999
1- Organizational competences
Coordination process; Behavior and Managers’ involvement; Motivation management; and
Performance management
2- Inter-Functional competences
New product management; Customer support and Quality management
3- Functional competences
R&D; Production; Marketing; Finance; and HRM…
4- Specialized competences
Knowledge and specialized know-how of individual members
R. B. V. Definitions
Typology of Competences #8
BHrebiniak, L, and Snow, C., 1980
1- General management
2- Financial management
3- Marketing Selling
4- Marketing Research
5- R&D
6- Engineering
7- Production
8- Distribution
9- Legal affairs
10- Personnel
Typology by Function
R. B. V. Definitions
Attributes and dimensions of Competences
1- Level of analysis (Corporate; Division; Business; or
Individual)
2- Logics of typology: Performance-oriented; “Filtered”;
Orientation
3- Level of detail/complexity
456789-
Principle of contingency (/industry; /size; /time; /?)
Inter-competences links
Degree of conscience or understanding
Degree of control
Potential or real effect of competence on the firm
Degree of mastering (competence)
5- Access (top-level managers; confidentiality)
6- Operationalization of VRIS criteria
R. B. V. Definitions
Report
Detection of competences and Resources of an Organization:
1- Build a typology of their competences
2- Understand the link between Resources/Competencies and
Performance
3- Identify the features of the firm’s competence management
system
Methodology: interview of top-managers are required because you
have to enter into the “black box” (complexity and contingence)
What is the degree of conscience of their own competences?
To what extent does the firm explicitly or implicitly manage its own
competences?
Would the firm be willing to go further in that analysis?