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Resource-Based View Definitions and Typologies Daniel Degravel, 2007 R. B. V. Definitions Resources Daft, 1983, Barney, J., 1991 Resource = assets, capabilities, organizational processes, firm attributes, information, knowledge, controlled by a firm that enable it to conceive of and to implement strategies that improve its efficiency and effectiveness Strengths that a firm can use to conceive of and implement its strategies Wernerfelt, B., 1984, Hafeez, K., Malak, N. and Zhang, Y., 2002 Resource = anything that could be thought as a strength or a weakness for a firm. Tangible and intangible assets tied permanently or semi-permanently to the firm - an input into the production process - the basic unit for analysis - anything tangible or intangible that can be owned or acquired R. B. V. Definitions Typology of Resources #1 Barney, J., 1991 1- Physical capital Technology, plant, equipment, location, access to raw material 2- Human capital Training, expertise, judgment, intelligence, relationships and insights of managers and workers 3- Organizational capital Organizational structure, planning, controlling and coordinating systems, informal relations among groups within the firm and with outside groups Typology of Resources #2 Hofer and Schendel, 1978, Grant, R., 1991 Mahoney, J. and Pandian, R., 1992 1- Physical resources 2- Financial resources 3- Human Resources 4- Organizational resources 5- Technological resources 6- Legal resources 7- Experience 8- Intangible resources R. B. V. Definitions Typology of Resources #3 Hafeez, K., Malak, N. and Zhang, Y., 2002 1- Physical assets 2- Intellectual assets 3- Cultural assets R. B. V. Definitions Competences Selznick, 1957 Competence = things that an Organization does especially well in comparison to its competitors Hamel, G. and Prahalad, C., 1990 Competence = collective learning of the Organization, especially how to coordinate diverse production skills and to integrate multiple streams of technology Penrose, 1959 Resource = stock. A resource can be defined independently from its use Capability (competence) = flow. It implies function and activity and cannot be defined independently from its use. Capabilities are created over time and may depend on History and use of resources in an extremely complex (“path-dependent”) process Hrebiniak, L. and Snow, C., 1980 Competence = aggregate of numerous specific activities that the organization tends to perform better than other Organizations in a similar environment R. B. V. Definitions Typology of Competences #1 Galbreath, J., 2005 Assets HAS Tangible Intangible Financial assets Physical assets Property rights Organization Reputation Skills DOES The skills of the Organization or its capabilities R. B. V. Definitions Typology of Competences #2 Durand, T. 1996 1- Elementary assets and resources, tangible and intangible Plant, equipment, products, software and brands 2- Cognitive competences, individual and collective, explicit and tacit Knowledge, know-how, technologies, patents 3- Organizational processes and routines (coordinated deployment of resources) Coordination mechanisms in the organization to combine the action of individuals into collective tasks and achievements 4- Organizational structure Structure including its internal and external dimensions (links with suppliers and customers) 5- Identity (Culture) Corporate culture and behavior in the organization. Its shared values, its rites and taboos are manifestations of the firm’s identity R. B. V. Definitions Typology of Competences #3 Sanchez, R., Heene, A. and Thomas, H., 1996 Competences Strategy Coordinated deployment Strategic Intent and Goals Organization and process for a coordinated deployment of assets Process of management Knowledge Intangible Resources Know-how Assets Explicit/tacit; individual/collective Techniques Brands Software Tangible Operations Products Equipments Buildings R. B. V. Definitions Typology of Competences #4 Hamel, G. and Prahalad, C., 1990 Final Products Core Products Core Competences Maximum around 6 The Tree R. B. V. Definitions Typology of Competences #5 Hall, R., 1992 Functional Linked to members of Organization (“Behavioral”) Know-how of employees, suppliers and distributors Cultural “Positional” Legal Perception of quality and aptitude to learn Reputation Networks Not Linked to members of Organization (Assetoriented) Data-base Contracts Licenses Business secrets Intellectual property rights R. B. V. Definitions Typology of Competences #6 Bajeva, A., Jamil, M. and Mascarenhas, B., 1998 1- Technological excellence 2- Process excellence 3- Relational excellence Typology of Competences #7 Quelin, B and Arregle, J., 1999 1- Organizational competences Coordination process; Behavior and Managers’ involvement; Motivation management; and Performance management 2- Inter-Functional competences New product management; Customer support and Quality management 3- Functional competences R&D; Production; Marketing; Finance; and HRM… 4- Specialized competences Knowledge and specialized know-how of individual members R. B. V. Definitions Typology of Competences #8 BHrebiniak, L, and Snow, C., 1980 1- General management 2- Financial management 3- Marketing Selling 4- Marketing Research 5- R&D 6- Engineering 7- Production 8- Distribution 9- Legal affairs 10- Personnel Typology by Function R. B. V. Definitions Attributes and dimensions of Competences 1- Level of analysis (Corporate; Division; Business; or Individual) 2- Logics of typology: Performance-oriented; “Filtered”; Orientation 3- Level of detail/complexity 456789- Principle of contingency (/industry; /size; /time; /?) Inter-competences links Degree of conscience or understanding Degree of control Potential or real effect of competence on the firm Degree of mastering (competence) 5- Access (top-level managers; confidentiality) 6- Operationalization of VRIS criteria R. B. V. Definitions Report Detection of competences and Resources of an Organization: 1- Build a typology of their competences 2- Understand the link between Resources/Competencies and Performance 3- Identify the features of the firm’s competence management system Methodology: interview of top-managers are required because you have to enter into the “black box” (complexity and contingence) What is the degree of conscience of their own competences? To what extent does the firm explicitly or implicitly manage its own competences? Would the firm be willing to go further in that analysis?