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CHAPTER 19: THE AGE
OF ENLIGHTENMENT
Art, Literature, and Society
By Priyanka Vaddi
Period 5
THE “PUBLIC SPHERE”
 French was the international

language, allowing the free flow of
ideas without a language barrier.
 The uninhibited exchange of ideas
brought on by new forums and

institutions, combined with new
media created a “public sphere”
(Chamber 566).
 Enlightenment ideals were debated
in more accessible urban public
spaces such as coffeehouses, which
served mainly as centers of social Underlined means 
links! Click for more
interaction.
information.
 “Republic of Letters”: a selfproclaimed community of scholars
and literary figures that stretched
across national boundaries.
Other social and intellectual
forums include salons and
freemasonic lodges.
Salons: gatherings organized by
wealthy women who bring
together important intellectuals
with the influential people that
were needed for patronage.
Freemasonry: a ritualistic
fraternity concerned with moral
and spiritual values.
T R AV E L
 By the middle of the 18th century, France had built new roads and
improved older ones, spreading out from Paris to the outskirts.
 Eventually all the European countries followed France’s example and
created a network of roads throughout the continent.
 This made traveling easier, although still slow and uncomfortable.
 Traveling became a pastime, what we call today as tourism. Many went
on a “grand tour,” which includes sights from both the modern and
ancient worlds.
Publishing and Reading
A) Rise in publishing
1. Travelling libraries
a. Originated in England
around 1740
b. Booksellers- publishers,
editors, salesperson all
combined. Helped
create fill demand for
books.
B) Journals and Newspapers
1. England led in this domain
2. Large increase in periodicals
between 1700 and 1780, from
25- 158.
3. Daily newspaper, originated
in England.
1. London Chronicle
C) “Bad Books”
1. romance books,
sensational pamphlets, gossip
sheets- low tastes
2. desperate writers
attacked the character of
notorious aristocrats and
factions of politics.
3. helped to “desacralize”
the monarchy and create an
image of an immoral aristocracy
(chambers 570).
R I S E O F T H E N OV E L
 Strongest development in England
 Most novels focused on family life and
 Samuel Richardson was the
everyday problems, and social relations.
acknowledged pioneer of this genre.  Popular writers:
 Pamela or Virtue Rewarded (1740)
 Daniel Defoe
 Advances in technologies of printing
 Robinson Crusoe
 Made the written texts available
 Jonathan Swift
to the growing population of
 Gulliver’s Travels
readers
 Samuel Richardson
 Higher literacy rates and different
 Johann von Goethe
modes of distribution
 Sturm und Drang (storm and
 More of the population could
stress)- literary movement that
read
emphasized strong artistic
 Distribution by peddlers allowed
emotions
the working-class and lower
 The Sorrows of Young Werther
classes to access written texts
 Henry Fielding
 The History of Joseph Andrews
P O E T RY
 Poetry retained traditional qualities.
 Neoclassical tradition- Art was meant to show eternal standards of
beauty and truth.
 By the end of the century, English and German poets rebelled against
restraints of Neoclassicism.
 Rebellion led to Romanticism- emphasized the individual and inner
passion.
 These poets changed the composition of poetry and made It flexible,
similar to a novel.
 Ex: Goethe, Henry Wordsworth, Friedrich von Schiller
NEOCLASSICISM
• Began in 1760s
• Emphasis on linear design in
the depiction of classical
themes and subject matter.
• Reaction against frivolity of
the preceding Rococo style.
Jacque Louis
David
William
Wordsworth
Romanticism
(popular writers)
Lord Byron
Percy Bysshe
Shelley
Edgar Allan Poe
William Blake
MUSIC
 The heart of music shifted from Italy and France to Austria.
 Franz Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van
Beethoven all transformed the composition of music.
 Beethoven ensured that the symphony was adaptable.
 Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony provides a bridge between 18th century
classicism and nineteenth century romanticism.
 Aristocratic and court patronage remained the best way to have a
career in music
 Haydn worked successfully on a court for a prince, but Mozart had an
unhappy ending trying to earn his living by composing.
 Beethoven freed himself from dependence on a patron through
individual commissions and public concerns.
FRANZ JOSEPH HAYDN
 Austrian composer
 Often called father of symphony
 Was a court musician for most of his career in a remote estate and was
“forced to become original”.
WOLFGANG AMADEUS
MOZART
 Austrian composer
 Very talented, wrote music for all musical genres and excelled in
each one.
 Afraid of the trumpet
LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN
 He is a deaf composer
 Considered greatest composer of all time.
 As a child, Beethoven was taught music with brutal vigor by his
father. He was ill-treated
POPULAR CULTURE
 For the poor, lower class population, publishers produced small, cheap
booklets.
 They were distributed by itinerant peddlers.
 There were three major forms of popular literature: