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CP World History (Unit 6, #7)
Name _________________________________
Date ____________________ Pd __________
The Counter-Reformation (The Catholic Reformation)
I. The Protestant Reformation
A. During the Protestant Reformation, religious reformers called ___________________________________ broke from the
Catholic Church & started new ____________________________ denominations
1. ____________________________ began the Reformation & believed in _____________________________________
2. John Calvin believed in ____________________________________ & a _________________ code of living
3. _____________________, not the _____________, was the head of the Anglican Church
B. In the 1500s, the new protestant faiths spread, especially into _________________________________________ in areas
away from the _________________ of the Catholic Church
C. But, ______________ Europeans, especially in Spain, France, Portugal, & Italy ________________________________ the
Catholic Church which remained the _________________ religion in Europe but it had lost much of its power & influence
II. The Counter Reformation
A. The _ of the Catholic Church to the Protestant Reformation became known as the ________________________________
(or the ______________________ Reformation)
B. One of the first ____________________ in the Catholic Church was _______________________________________ who
formed the Society of Jesus in 1540; Members of the Society of Jesus were called ______________ & focused on 3 goals:
1. Jesuits formed _____________________ to better educate Catholic priests
2. Jesuits tried to ________________ the ________________________ of Protestantism
3. Jesuits sent _________________________ around the world to ____________________ non-Christians to Catholicism
C. In 1545, Pope Paul III created a _____________________________ of Catholic leaders to ____________________ church
practices, known as the _________________________________________________
1. Over the next 18 years, the Council of Trent made a series of _________________
a. The Catholic Church stopped ________________ false ________________________
b. New _______________________ were created to educate priests
2. The Council of Trent also _________________________________ several core Catholic beliefs & practices
a. The _____________________ interpretation of the Bible is ______________ & all others who interpret the Bible
are _______________________ (non-believers)
b. Salvation is gained through _________________ in God & ____________________________
c. All _________________ Holy ____________________________ are legitimate means to gain God’s grace
3. To enforce these beliefs, the Church used the _______________________________________ to accuse, hold trials, &
_______________________ heretics
4. The Church banned & ____________________ all offensive books, including Protestant ________________
III. Impact of the Protestant Reformation
A. The Protestant Reformation left Europe __________________________________________________
B. Numerous religious ____________________ were fought between Catholics & Protestants
C. The weakened authority of the _________________ helped _________________ gain power & form nations
D. _________________________________ converted non-Christians throughout the ___________________
E. The Reformation encouraged __________________________ & the ___________________________ of long-held beliefs
The Counter Reformation Problem Solving Activity
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: After 1517 when Martin Luther posted his famous 95 Theses, new Protestant religions—
Lutherans, Anglicans, Calvinists—were popping up all over in Germany, Switzerland, England, Scotland, Scandinavia, the
Netherlands. While these Protestants won many followers, millions of Catholics held fast to their traditional religious
beliefs and the Roman Catholic Church remained the largest and strongest religious group in Western Europe.
Nonetheless, many Catholic leaders were concerned as they witnessed the Catholic Church begin to lose some of its
power and influence over the people of Western Europe. In 1545, Catholic bishops and cardinals met in the northern
Italian town of Trent to discuss how they would respond to these changes.
1. What was the biggest problem that Catholic leaders had to solve at the Council of Trent?
2. Complete the following assignments IN ORDER.
(A) Brainstorm as many possible solutions to this problem in the “Possible Alternative” category.
(B) After you have listed 5 possible alternatives to solving the problem, list 1 positive consequence and 1 negative
consequence for each alternative
(C) After you have listed 5 possible alternatives and come up with consequences, rank order your alternatives (1 is
the best thing you would do)
3. Based on your options, what would you decided to do to fix the Church’s problems if you were a Catholic leader at
the Council of Trent? Why?
CP World History (Unit 6, #6)
The Protestant Reformation
I. The Beliefs & Authority of the Catholic Church
A. During the Middle Ages, the ________________________________________________ was the dominant religion in Western Europe
1. Without a common ___________________________ in Europe, the Catholic _____________ became an important political leader
2. On the manor, _________________ were powerful because the controlled peoples’ access to ___________________ by delivering
the sacraments & absolving sins
B. The Catholic Church taught that people could gain access to heaven (called ___________________________) by having faith in God &
doing _______________________________ for others
1. The church taught that Christians could gain more of God’s _____________ through a series of spiritual ______________________
called the Holy ___________________________
2. Sacraments included __________________, Confirmation, Communion, Confession, ___________________, Ordination of Priests,
Last Rites for the Dying
C. But, the church was also growing __________________________
1. Clergy members took vows of _____________________ to abstain from ___________…but some church leaders fathered children
2. Priests were required to go through rigorous ____________________ in a monastery…but some church positions were _________
to the highest bidder called ____________________
3. Sometimes, feudal lords would use their influence to have friends or children named as priests, called _______________________
4. As a result, some clergy members were poorly _______________________
5. One of the most ___________________ church practices was the selling of _______________________________
a. Indulges began as a way for people to ___________________ for their sins through ____________________________
b. But rather than requiring good deeds, church leaders began selling indulgence certificates as a way of ____________________
D. These practices went _________________________________ during the Middle Ages
II. The Renaissance Influence on Catholicism
A. By the time of the Renaissance, some Christians began ______________________ church corruptions & questioned Catholic teachings
1. Christian ________________________ believed that they could help ___________________ the Catholic Church
2. In the 1300s, Reformers like John Wycliffe & priest Jan Hus attacked corruptions like indulges, said that the ___________________
(not the Pope) was the ultimate authority on Christianity, & wanted church teachings in the __________________________ (local
language) not Latin
3. Catholic leaders responded to these criticisms by _______________________ Wycliffe & Hus
4. In 1509, Christian humanist _________________ published Praise of Folly which called for an end of corruptions
B. As a result of Johann _____________________________ invention of the moveable-type ____________________________________
in 1453, Erasmus’ book _________________________ throughout Europe & increased calls for church reform
III. The Protestant Reformation
A. By the early 1500s, the Catholic Church was in ____________ over the controversy of corruption & its unwillingness to adopt reforms
1. In Germany, a Catholic monk named _________________________ became involved in a serious dispute with the Catholic Church
2. Martin Luther’s ______________ from the Catholic Church began the _________________________________________________
& inspired a series of new Christian denominations
3. During the Protestant Reformation, reformers ___________ church corruptions & practices in hopes of ____________ Christianity
B. Martin Luther
1. As a young boy in Germany, Luther was going to become a _________________, but after he nearly died in a thunderstorm he
vowed to become a Catholic _______________
2. After ______________________ the Bible as a monk, Martin Luther became a priest & scholar
a. During his studies of the Bible, Luther became convinced that ________________________________ could not be achieved by
good works & _______________________________
b. Instead, Luther was inspired by St. Paul’s Epistle to the Romans: “A person can be made good by having _________________ in
c. Martin Luther believed that salvation was gained though having faith in God; He called this idea __________________________
d. Martin Luther was also deeply troubled by the church’s selling of ________________________, which he saw as false salvation
3. In 1517, Martin Luther wrote a list of arguments against church practices called the “____________________________________”
a. He __________ the Ninety-Five Theses on the church door in the town of Wittenberg & welcomed _____________ of his ideas
b. The “Ninety-Five Theses” _______________ quickly through Europe causing an incredible ____________________
i. Many people, especially in Northern Europe, were ____________________ about his ideas
ii. But the Catholic Church __________________________ Luther & rejected his ideas
4. In 1521, Luther was called before the __________________________________________, a meeting of church & political leaders
a. The Church demanded that Luther ___________________________ his teachings
b. Luther ____________________, argued that the Bible was the only source of religious _____________________, & encouraged
Christians to __________________ the Bible for themselves
c. At the Diet of Worms, Martin Luther was _________________________________________________ from the Catholic Church
C. Martin Luther’s stand against the Catholic Church led to the formation of a new Christian denomination known as ________________
1. Lutheranism was the first of a series of “______________________” Christian faiths that _____________ from the Catholic Church