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Transcript
Climate Change Challenges for Cities in the
Kathmandu City
Regional Policy Dialogue on Sustainable Urbanisation in
South Asia: Greening the Infrastructure Gap
17-18 December 2014
New Delhi
Batu Uprety
Member, Climate Change Council, Nepal
17 December 2014, Wednesday
Background
•
Nepal’s urban population is
17.07 % (2011). The urban
population will reach 27% by
2021.
• The urban population growth
rate is 3.38% i.e. nearly 3
times higher than the
national average growth rate
(1.35%)
• 47% of Nepal’s urban
population in the Kathmandu
Valley
The Kathmandu Valley
Nepal’s NAPA ranked most climate vulnerable
Temperature Deviation from Normal oC
Temperature Increase in Nepal & Kathmandu
0.8
0.8
0.4
0.4
0.0
Normal
0.0
-0.4
-0.4
24-40o North Latitude
Temperature
All-Nepal Temperature
Trend 1977-94
Kathmandu Temperature
All-Nepal Temperature
1880
1900
1920
1940
Years
Source: Shrestha et.al., 1999
1960
1980
2000
Wet Season 2011/12
Wet Season 2010/11
Supply
Wet Season 2009/10
Dry Season 2011/12
Demand
Dry Season 2010/11
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
Dry Season 2009/10
 Demand about 350 million
liters/day
 Ground water contributes up to
50%
 Groundwater extraction by KUKL
alone 70MLD
 Recharge potential 26 MLD
 No. of rainy days having > 100mm
a day declined and total amount
of rainfall almost same
Million Liter Per Day
Too much water and less water supply
Deficiencies
Urban Settlement
2000
2012
 Annual growth rate of the valley 4.25%
 Fertile agricultural land converted to 'concrete'/surface expansion
 Urban expansion more towards the northern part – water
recharge area
Forests and Biodiversity
• Valley surrounded by degraded forest hills as a whole
• Poor in urban forests, parks and gardens
Issues – population growth, water scarcity
haphazard urbanisation, and poor 'lungs’
Challenges
• Inadequate means of implementation and
institutional coordination
• Translating policies into actions (resource use
and energy efficiency, climate adaptation ...)
• Access to affordable technologies including ecoefficient water infrastructure, and informed
choices on technologies
Possible Options
• Promoting low carbon economic development pathway
and making the infrastructure climate resilient
• NAPA to NAP – reduce climate vulnerability and
integrate adaptation into policies, plans & programmes
• Promoting eco-efficient water infrastructures such as
rainwater harvesting, groundwater recharge and
community wastewater treatment facilities;
• Strengthening local governments and promoting
triangular partnership – public-private-civil society and
incentivising the efficient resource users