JOURNAL Does our school have “cliques?” If yes, what “clique” are you in? Was it chosen by you or for you? If no, if our school did have “cliques,” which one would you want to be in? THE BEGINNING OF SOCIOLOGY SOCIOLOGY IS A NEW SCIENCE Began in late 19th Century Europe. The Industrial Revolution and French Revolution brought changes. People were moving from farms to factory life. AUGUSTE COMTE (1798-1857) French Father of Sociology If societies were going to advance, social behavior had to studied scientifically. Positivism – scientific observation in the study of social behavior. SOCIAL STATICS VS. SOCIAL DYNAMICS Social Statics – the study of social stability and order. Social Dynamics – the study of social change. The distinction between social stability and social change remains at the center of modern sociology. HARRIET MARTINEAU (1802-1876) English Lost her sense of taste, smell, and hearing before reaching adulthood. Translated Comte’s book into English. Wrote about the inferior position of women in society. Women’s lack of economic power kept them dependent. HERBERT SPENCER (1820-1903) To explain social stability, he compared sociology to the body. Like a body, society is composed of parts working together to promote its well-being and survival. Social Darwinism - competition among all individuals, groups, nations, or ideas drives social evolution in human societies. KARL MARX (1818-1883) VERY IMPORTANT PERSON!! Believed there would eventually be two classes. Bourgeoisie – Those who own everything Proletariat – Those who work for the Bourgeoisie. He believed eventually the Proletariat would overthrow the Bourgeoisie and there would be a classless society. This is called “Class Conflict.” MAX WEBER (1864-1920) “Human beings act on the basis of their own understanding of a situation.” Therefore, sociologists must discover the personal meaning, values, beliefs, and attitudes underlying human social behavior. JANE ADDAMS (1860-1935) Focused on problems caused by the imbalance of power among the social classes. She was considered a social worker because she did not teach at a university. In 1931, she became the only sociologist to win the Nobel Peace Prize.