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Early
Sociologists
Sociology
Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
French
Philosopher
Founder of Sociology as a
distinct subject
Studied Social Order and Social
Change
Harriet Martineau (1802-1876)
 Conducted
studies in the US and Britain
 Believed sociologists should try to improve
society, not just study it
 Translated Comte into English
 Published:


Society in America (1837)
How to Observe Morals and Manners
(1838)
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
 Social
Darwinism/ biological view
 The best aspects of society survive over
time
 “Survival of the fittest”- Spencer coined
this term.
 Justifies “Haves & Havenots”
Karl Marx (1818-83)
 Society
is divided into two classes:
bourgeoisie (capitalists) & proletariat
(workers)
 Inequality will lead to conflict (conflict
theory)
 Communism
 Society is influenced greatly by the
economy
Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
Developed
first course on
Sociology in France
Society is a set of
interdependent parts
Everything has functions (Think
of bees in a hive)
Max Weber (1864-1920)
Effect
of society on the
individual
Verstehen- Individuals attach
meaning to their actions