Download 15.2 Single - Factor (One - Way) Analysis of Variance

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Transcript
Dimensions Of Product Quality (Garvin)
1. Core Performance
•basic operating characteristics
2. Features
•“extra” items added to basic features
3. Reliability
•probability product will operate, even in strenuous conditions
4. Convenience
•Amount of effort required to use the product
5. Durability
•life span before replacement
6. Serviceability
•ease of getting repairs, speed & competence of repairs
7. Aesthetics
•look, feel, sound, smell or taste
8. Safety
•freedom from injury or harm
9. Personal image
•subjective perceptions based on brand name, advertising, design
labels, etc
Additional Dimensions of Service Quality
1. Time & Timeliness
•customer waiting time, completed on time
2. Accessibility & Convenience
•ease of obtaining service
3. Face-to-Face interaction
•treatment by employees
4. Accuracy
•performed right every time
e
The Meaning of Quality
Producer’s Perspective
Quality of Conformance
Production
•Conformance to
specifications
•Cost
Consumer’s Perspective
Quality of Design
•Performance quality
•Product’s bundle of
attributes & specifications
•Price
Fitness for
Consumer Use
Marketing
Two Ways Quality
Improves Profitability
Sales Gains via
 Improved response
 Flexible pricing
Improved
Quality
 Improved reputation
Reduced Costs via
 Lower rework and scrap costs
 Lower warranty & product
liability costs
Increased
Profits
Cost Of Quality
• Control Costs (cost of achieving good quality)
•Prevention
•Appraisal
• Failure Costs (cost of poor quality)
•Internal failure costs
•External failure costs
Japanese vs US Quality Costs (1980s)
70
60
% of quality effort
50
40
Japan
30
USA
20
10
0
Design Product
Produce Product
Rework Product
Resolve Customer
Problems
Quality And Productivity
• Productivity = output / input
• Fewer defects increase output
• Quality improvement reduces inputs
Quality Philosophies
• Joseph Juran
• Focus on actions and mind-set of managers; believed an
organization’s culture is the root cause of quality problems
• W. Edwards Deming
• Developed statistical process control techniques
• Six Sigma
• Focus on reducing defects to achieve stable and predictable
process results through statistical approaches and problem-solving
• Total Quality Management
• Management philosophy that advocates participation of every
member in organization is part of effort to improve quality
Total Quality Management
1. Customer defined quality and satisfaction
2. Top management leadership
3. Quality as a strategic issue
4. All employees responsible for quality
5. Continuous improvement
6. Shared problem solving/ Cross-discipline system
approach
7. Statistical quality control: measurement of results
8. Mutually beneficial supplier relations
Options to Improve Quality of Conformance
• Consumer Education: product labeling, instructions,
online resources
• Follow-up Service: Recalls, extended warranties,
replacements
• Inspection of Work and Product
• Preventative Procedures
Preventative Procedures
• Improve Quality of Design: Design product/process for
robustness, poka-yoke, Taguchi Statistics
• Implement Six Sigma
• Involve Employees: Training, empowering, soliciting
input
• Form strategic supplier partnerships
• Remove safety nets: carrying JIT inventory and requiring
minimal lead times