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Transcript
Project Quality
Management
Sections of this presentation were adapted
from A Guide to the Project Management
Body of Knowledge 4th Edition, Project
Management Institute Inc., © 2009
Project Quality Management
“Creating and following policies and
procedures to ensure that a project meets
the defined needs it was intended to meet
from the customer’s perspective.” PMP
Exam Prep, 6th Edition
Why Quality Management?
Quality means conformance to specifications and
fitness for use – i.e. just what you need and not
more
Projects or products with unnecessary features
can be too expensive to meet the business need
Prevention is much cheaper than inspection, build
quality in early to minimize costs/maximize quality
How Do We Manage Quality?
Three processes

Plan Quality
What is quality and how will we ensure it?

Perform Quality Assurance
Are we following the quality standards?

Perform Quality Control
Are we meeting the quality standards?
Plan
Quality
Perform
Quality
Assurance
Perform
Quality
Control
Plan Quality
Inputs
Tools & Techniques
Scope Baseline
 Cost-benefit analysis
Stakeholder Register
 Cost of quality
Outputs
Quality Management
Plan
Quality Metrics
 Control charts
Cost Performance
Baseline
 Benchmarking
Quality Checklists
 Design of experiments
Schedule Baseline
Process
Improvement Plan
 Statistical sampling
Risk Register
Enterprise
Environmental Factors
Organizational Process
Assets
Plan
Quality
 Flowcharting
Project document
updates
 Proprietary quality
management methodologies
 Additional quality planning
tools
Perform
Quality
Assurance
Perform
Quality
Control
Plan Quality
Cost of Quality –
Evaluating the cost of
conformance with the
cost of nonconformance
to reach a balance.
Includes;



Prevention Costs
Appraisal Costs
Failure Costs
Deming’s Costs of Quality
Cost of
Cost of Non
Conformance Conformance
Quality training
Rework
Studies
Scrap
Surveys
Inventory Costs
Warranty Costs
85% of the costs of quality are the direct responsibility of management - Deming
Quality Planning Terms
Gold Plating – Giving the customer extras that
do not add value to the project
Marginal Analysis – The point where the
incremental revenue from an improvement
equals the cost to implement it
Kaizen – Continuous improvement process to
reduce costs and promote consistency
ISO 9000 – International standard to ensure that
companies have quality procedures and that
they follow them
Perform Quality Assurance
Tools & Techniques
Outputs
Project Management Plan
Quality Metrics
Inputs
Work Performance
Information
 Plan quality and perform
quality control tools and
techniques
Organizational
Process Assets
Updates
Change Requests
 Quality audits
Project Management
Plan Updates
 Process analysis
Quality Control
Measurements
Project Document
Updates
Plan
Quality
Perform
Quality
Assurance
Perform
Quality
Control
Statistics Terms Review
Mutually Exclusive – Two
events that cannot both
occur in a single trial
Statistical Independence
– Probability of one event
occurring does not affect
the probability of another
event occurring
Probability – The
likelihood that something
will occur (usually
expressed in percent)
Normal Distribution
Remember:
+/- 1 s = 68.26%
+/- 2 s = 95.46%
+/- 3 s = 99.73%
+/- 6 s = 99.99%
Perform Quality Control
Inputs
Project Management
Plan
Tools & Techniques
 Cause and effect diagram
 Control charts
Quality Metrics
Outputs
Validated Changes
 Flowcharting
Quality Checklists
Validated Deliverables
 Histogram
Work Performance
Measurements
 Pareto Chart
Organizational Process
Assets Updates
 Run chart
Change Requests
Approved Change
Requests
 Scatter diagram
Deliverables
 Inspection
Project Management
Plan Updates
 Statistical sampling
Organizational Process
Assets
Plan
Quality
Quality Control
Measurements
Project Document
Updates
 Approved change requests
review
Perform
Quality
Assurance
Perform
Quality
Control
Pareto Chart
Frequency
Cumulative Percentage
Graph of problem type vs. frequency
80/20 Rule – 80% of your problems will come from
20% of your work!
Problem Type
Control Chart
Upper & Lower Control Limits (UCL & LCL)


Set by quality goal i.e. 3s
Includes the normal and expected variation in the process
Specification Limits

Contracted acceptable limit, usually outside UCL & LCL
Out of Control


Data point falls outside of UCL/LCL
Non-random data points i.e. “Rule of Seven”
Rule of Seven


If you get seven points in a row on one side of the mean, seven
points ascending, or seven points descending, the process is no
longer random and it is out of control
Originally adopted from a Ford quality manual
Assignable Change

When the controller adjusts the process to bring the process back
within process control limits
Control Charts
Specification Limit
(or Mean)
Specification Limit