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PART II
PREPARATION/
PROCESS
CHAPTER THREE
COMMUNICATION
COMMUNICATION
Framework for Communication
Communication Theories
Communication Models
The Communication Process
Goals and Purposes of Communication
3-2
Communication Theories

Communication theories address a variety
of areas and contexts:
 Verbal
and Nonverbal Messages
 Interpersonal/Relational
 Cultural
 Group/Organizational/Public Communication
 Mass Communication
3-3
Public Relations borrows from
several theory areas

This would depend on the goals, purposes,
objectives, and context for communication.
Basic messages from Information Theory
Public communication from Rhetorical
Theory
Mass communication Theories
3-4
Examples of Mass Communication
Theory applied to
Public Relations
Two-Step Flow Theory
 Spiral of Silence

3-5
Public Relations Models

Grunig-Hunt Models
 Press Agentry/Publicity
Model
 Public Information Model
 Two-Way Asymmetric Model
 Two-Way Symmetric Model
3-6
The Communication Process
3-7
SEMDR Communication
Process
3-8
Communication Process Model
3-9
Communication Process Elements
Source-origin of communication
 Message-content of the message
 Encode-translates idea into message
 Decode-breaks down the message
 Receiver-targeted message recipient
NOTE: Processing and feedback necessary
by all parties involved.

3-10
What are some barriers to
communication?
Clue: Inhibits the message from being
received.
3-11
What are some of the contexts in
which communication occurs?
Clue: Two workers engaged in a planning
meeting for a campaign
Answer: Interpersonal communication
3-12
Our words our open to
interpretation.....

Can you think of an example?
3-13
They’re only words…..

“Can’t we all just get along?”

“I never inhaled.”

“If they don’t fit, you must acquit.”
…but we remember them.
3-14
Some words stay in the
lexicon…..
Hanging chads
 Embeds


Would they be understandable in all
contexts?
3-15
Symbols
What symbol is used to identify your
school?
 Why would organizations like your school
want to use symbols?
 What are some organizational symbols
that are evident on campus?

3-16
Semantics

Are there any differences here?
I
want you to use the color red to identify our
logo.
 I want you to use fire engine red to identify
our logo.
3-17
Points to remember
The message must be clear to all parties.
 Write and speak with the audience in
mind.

3-18
Can you identify some recent
problems that some organizations
have had with communication?
Clue: Corporations
3-19
Goals/Purposes of
Communication

To inform, persuade, motivate, or build
understanding
3-20
Hierarchy of Communication
Goal/Purpose
Objective
Planned approach
Research
Write
Edit/Rewrite
3-21