Download Chapter 1 Vocabulary

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Antipositivism: the view that social researchers should strive for subjectivity as they
worked to represent social processes, cultural norms, and societal values
Positivism: the scientific study of social patterns
Qualitative sociology: in-depth interviews, focus groups, and/or analysis of content sources as
the source of its data
Quantitative sociology: statistical methods such as surveys with large numbers of participants
Conflict theory: a theory that looks at society as a competition for limited resources
Dramaturgical analysis: a technique sociologists use in which they view society through the
metaphor of theatrical performance
Dynamic equilibrium: a stable state in which all parts of a healthy society are working together
Dysfunctions: social patterns that have undesirable consequences for the operation of society
Function: the part a recurrent activity plays in the social life as a whole and the contribution it
makes to structural continuity
Functionalism: a theoretical approach that sees society as a structure with interrelated parts
designed to meet the biological and social needs of individuals that make up that society
Grand theories: attempts to explain large-scale relationships and answer fundamental questions
such as why societies form and why they change
Latent functions: the unrecognized or unintended consequences of a social process
Macro-level: a wide-scale view of the role of social structures within a society
Manifest functions: sought consequences of a social process
Micro-level theories: the study of specific relationships between individuals or small groups
Paradigms: philosophical and theoretical frameworks used within a discipline to formulate
theories, generalizations, and the experiments performed in support of them
Social facts: the laws, morals, values, religious beliefs, customs, fashions, rituals, and all of the
cultural rules that govern social life
Social solidarity: the social ties that bind a group of people together such as kinship, shared
location, and religion
Symbolic interactionism: a theoretical perspective through which scholars examine the
relationship of individuals within their society by studying their communication (language and
Theory: a proposed explanation about social interactions or society