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Elton Mayo
• Between 1924 and 1927 his research findings have
contributed to organisational development in terms of
human relations and motivation theory.
• From investigations he found:
• Work is a group activity
• Social world of adult is primarily patterned about work
• Work is a person whose attitudes and effectiveness are
conditioned by social demands from both inside and
outside the work plant.
• Group collaboration is not accidental; it must be planned
or developed
Abraham Maslow
• Carried out investigations on human
behaviour between 1939 and 1943.
• Five sets of goals which may be
called basic needs:
• Psychological, Safety, Love, Esteem,
Self fulfilment
• Men’s basic needs are psychological
e.g. thirst, hunger and sleep.
• Individuals have a need for self
actualization or a desire for self
fulfilment which means they are more
determined to achieve personal
satisfaction and creativity within the
Believed there are to motivation theories:
(includes work and organisational environment)
Organisation, its policies and administration, kind of
supervision, working conditions, interpersonal
relations, salary, status and job security
- These factors do not lead to higher levels of motivation
but without them there is dissatisfaction
Motivators are: Achievement, recognition,
growth/advancement and interest in the job.
- These factors result from internal instincts in employees
yielding motivation rather than movement.
Examined theories on behaviour of individuals at work
Theory X Assumptions
The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if he can
Theory Y Assumptions
Control and punishment are not the only ways to make people work, man will direct himself if he is
committed to the aims of the organization
Imagination, creativity can be used to solve work problems
- Used in the managing of managers and professionals
- Helpful when problem solving
Comments on Theory X and Theory Y Assumptions:
- based on social science research
- organisations should recognise the potential in man in order to become more effective
McGregor realizes that the theories are unrealizable in practice, but wants managers to put into
operation the basic assumption that:
- Staff
will contribute more to the organization if they are treated as
responsible and valued employees
When Applied to Case Study
• To motivate people within the organisation it is
probably not very beneficial to merge the regional
offices; people would have to relocate 20 miles
away and this could be impractical and a reason
why many would leave the business.
• With redundancies of up to 15%, which amounts to
55 people, this therefore emphasises that they
should not consider merging as it is a fairly small
business and likely to lose more employees that are
vital to the business considering their current state
in the economy.
• -Mayo's motivational theory would most likely be
the best solution to their problems; he realised
that singling people out resulted in higher self
esteem, showing that managers or people within
the business who naturally work independently
would thrive, and other employees would enjoy
working as a team to organise events and
provide the best service possible to clients.
• There seems to be a lack of communication or
conferring between the Head Office and the
employees, therefore making the employees feel
secluded and not part of decisions made; this
resulting in a lack of cooperation and loyalty, and
as Mayo found, without this, productivity