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Motivation Theories Elton Mayo • Between 1924 and 1927 his research findings have contributed to organisational development in terms of human relations and motivation theory. • From investigations he found: • Work is a group activity • Social world of adult is primarily patterned about work activity. • Work is a person whose attitudes and effectiveness are conditioned by social demands from both inside and outside the work plant. • Group collaboration is not accidental; it must be planned or developed Abraham Maslow • Carried out investigations on human behaviour between 1939 and 1943. • Five sets of goals which may be called basic needs: • Psychological, Safety, Love, Esteem, Self fulfilment • Men’s basic needs are psychological e.g. thirst, hunger and sleep. • Individuals have a need for self actualization or a desire for self fulfilment which means they are more determined to achieve personal satisfaction and creativity within the job. Herzberg • Believed there are to motivation theories: HYGIENE THEORIES (includes work and organisational environment) • Organisation, its policies and administration, kind of supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relations, salary, status and job security - These factors do not lead to higher levels of motivation but without them there is dissatisfaction MOTIVATION • Motivators are: Achievement, recognition, growth/advancement and interest in the job. - These factors result from internal instincts in employees yielding motivation rather than movement. McGregor • Examined theories on behaviour of individuals at work • Theory X Assumptions The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if he can • Theory Y Assumptions Control and punishment are not the only ways to make people work, man will direct himself if he is committed to the aims of the organization Imagination, creativity can be used to solve work problems - Used in the managing of managers and professionals - Helpful when problem solving • Comments on Theory X and Theory Y Assumptions: - based on social science research - organisations should recognise the potential in man in order to become more effective • McGregor realizes that the theories are unrealizable in practice, but wants managers to put into operation the basic assumption that: - Staff will contribute more to the organization if they are treated as responsible and valued employees When Applied to Case Study • To motivate people within the organisation it is probably not very beneficial to merge the regional offices; people would have to relocate 20 miles away and this could be impractical and a reason why many would leave the business. • With redundancies of up to 15%, which amounts to 55 people, this therefore emphasises that they should not consider merging as it is a fairly small business and likely to lose more employees that are vital to the business considering their current state in the economy. • -Mayo's motivational theory would most likely be the best solution to their problems; he realised that singling people out resulted in higher self esteem, showing that managers or people within the business who naturally work independently would thrive, and other employees would enjoy working as a team to organise events and provide the best service possible to clients. • There seems to be a lack of communication or conferring between the Head Office and the employees, therefore making the employees feel secluded and not part of decisions made; this resulting in a lack of cooperation and loyalty, and as Mayo found, without this, productivity decreases.