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Ayesukwe, Betty Martha
Midterm Examination in Education 511
1. Differentiate the term organization from management. Cite the
school or agency in which you belong to substantiate your
The term organization implies a formalized structure of various roles or
positions. It relates structuring and integrating activities with people
working and cooperating with one another to accomplish goals. It can
also be seen as a coordinated unit consisting of at least two people who
function to achieve a common goal or set of goals. Organization consist
of people, structure, environment and management. Organization can
be business organization, church, school, or military. All the elements or
components in organization make it to function well. The people in
organization make up the internal social system of the organization.
This system consists of individuals and groups, large or small, with
different values and orientations. People interact as they work in an
organization to achieve their objectives.
Structure in organization define the formal relationships and use of
human resources in organization. Technology provide the resources
with which people work and affects the task they perform. The benefit
of technology is that it allows workers to perform much better work.
Management system. These involve the integration of diverse elements
in unifying the total organizational efforts to accomplish effectively the
organizational goals and objectives. Organization possess the following
tools, Records, Reports, Organizational charts and Manual of
On the other hand, the term Management refers to the process of
designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals working
together in groups efficiently to accomplish selected aims. It is a
process by which a cooperative group directs action toward common
goals. The purpose of management is to achieve certain specific
objective which usually has to do with improving the ability of an
organization in its effectiveness and efficiency. These purposes are
common in all types of organizations. School organization where I
belong operates in the same manner where all group efforts are geared
toward achieving quality learning outcomes for students, quality
education that meet the needs of society, and goals of Education in
2. In a form of matrix, present the different theories/ concepts/
principles about organization and management.
Management is one component of organization. It is the
management that coordinates and work with other components
to achieve organizational goals. The theories, concepts and
principles are tools for organizational and management efficiency
and effectiveness. There are so many theories, concepts and
principles about organization and management. These includes
the following
1. Classical theories of organization. The classical theories of
organization includes, the scientific management approach,
Weber’s bureaucratic approach and administratve theory,
2. Neoclassical theory which emphasizes individual and group
behaviour and human relations
3. Modern theories which are based on concepts that
organization is an adaptive system which has to adjust to
changes in its environment. Modern theories includes
system approach, contingency approach and socio-technical
4. Taylor’s principles of scientific management. These includes,
science, not rule of thumb, scienctific selection of workers,
management and Labour cooperation rather than conflict,
scientific training of workers.
5. Fayol’s principles of management and administrative theory.
These principles includes, Division of work, Authority and
Responsibility, Discipline, Unity of command, Unity of
direction, Subordination of individual interest to general
interest, Remuneration, Centralization, Scalar chain Order,
Equity, Stability of tenure, Initiative, Esprit de corps.
6. W Edward Deming’s 14 points for management. These
includes, Create constancy of purpose towards
improvement, Adopt the new philosophy, Cease
dependence on inspection, Move towards a single supplier,
improve constantly and forever, Institute training on job,
Institute leadership, Drive out fear, Breakdown barriers
between departments, Eliminate slogans, Eliminate
management by objectives, Remove barriers to pride of
workmanship, Institute education and self- improvement,
The transformation is everyone’s job.