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Ayesukwe, Betty Martha Midterm Examination in Education 511 1. Differentiate the term organization from management. Cite the school or agency in which you belong to substantiate your answer. The term organization implies a formalized structure of various roles or positions. It relates structuring and integrating activities with people working and cooperating with one another to accomplish goals. It can also be seen as a coordinated unit consisting of at least two people who function to achieve a common goal or set of goals. Organization consist of people, structure, environment and management. Organization can be business organization, church, school, or military. All the elements or components in organization make it to function well. The people in organization make up the internal social system of the organization. This system consists of individuals and groups, large or small, with different values and orientations. People interact as they work in an organization to achieve their objectives. Structure in organization define the formal relationships and use of human resources in organization. Technology provide the resources with which people work and affects the task they perform. The benefit of technology is that it allows workers to perform much better work. Management system. These involve the integration of diverse elements in unifying the total organizational efforts to accomplish effectively the organizational goals and objectives. Organization possess the following tools, Records, Reports, Organizational charts and Manual of operations. On the other hand, the term Management refers to the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals working together in groups efficiently to accomplish selected aims. It is a process by which a cooperative group directs action toward common goals. The purpose of management is to achieve certain specific objective which usually has to do with improving the ability of an organization in its effectiveness and efficiency. These purposes are common in all types of organizations. School organization where I belong operates in the same manner where all group efforts are geared toward achieving quality learning outcomes for students, quality education that meet the needs of society, and goals of Education in general. 2. In a form of matrix, present the different theories/ concepts/ principles about organization and management. Management is one component of organization. It is the management that coordinates and work with other components to achieve organizational goals. The theories, concepts and principles are tools for organizational and management efficiency and effectiveness. There are so many theories, concepts and principles about organization and management. These includes the following 1. Classical theories of organization. The classical theories of organization includes, the scientific management approach, Weber’s bureaucratic approach and administratve theory, 2. Neoclassical theory which emphasizes individual and group behaviour and human relations 3. Modern theories which are based on concepts that organization is an adaptive system which has to adjust to changes in its environment. Modern theories includes system approach, contingency approach and socio-technical approach. 4. Taylor’s principles of scientific management. These includes, science, not rule of thumb, scienctific selection of workers, management and Labour cooperation rather than conflict, scientific training of workers. 5. Fayol’s principles of management and administrative theory. These principles includes, Division of work, Authority and Responsibility, Discipline, Unity of command, Unity of direction, Subordination of individual interest to general interest, Remuneration, Centralization, Scalar chain Order, Equity, Stability of tenure, Initiative, Esprit de corps. 6. W Edward Deming’s 14 points for management. These includes, Create constancy of purpose towards improvement, Adopt the new philosophy, Cease dependence on inspection, Move towards a single supplier, improve constantly and forever, Institute training on job, Institute leadership, Drive out fear, Breakdown barriers between departments, Eliminate slogans, Eliminate management by objectives, Remove barriers to pride of workmanship, Institute education and self- improvement, The transformation is everyone’s job.