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Nature is Orderly
With this assumption we can explain
phenomenon using scientific theories
speculation is a general statement about
nature that is constructed without fact (or
enough fact)
 Scientific speculation is a legitimate part of
the scientific process that develops early
ideas that are not yet robust enough to be a
testable, falsifiable or worthy of being a
more formal "hypothesis".
 What
makes up a theory?
 What is Speculation?
 What is the difference between a scientific
law and a scientific fact?
 What theories/facts/laws do you know?
Amazing facts: Did you know that there are 206 bones in
the adult human body and there are 300 in children (as
they grow some of the bones fuse together).
The longest living cells in the body are brain cells which
can live an entire lifetime.
The cosmos contains approximately 50,000,000,000
There are between 100,000,000,000 and
1,000,000,000,000 stars in a normal galaxy.
Hydrofluoric acid will dissolve glass
A fact is an objective,verifiable
observation.It is the same everywhere.
It can and has been,verified many times.
 It
is a statement intended to explain a
 How
certain is a theory?
 Many people say it’s a guess or speculation,
which is how standard English uses the word
 When
a scientist speaks about a theory it
means something completely different:
Scientific Theory:
An explanation of how and why a natural
phenomenon behaves the way it does that
is confirmed by all available evidence such
that it could be used to predict new,as yet
unobserved phenomena
Examples of Scientific Theory:
 The theory of relativity: that the laws of
physics are the same for all observers
 The theory of evolution by natural
selection: that the observed changes in
species occur due to non-random selection of
well adapted specimens over less well
adapted specimens
 The Big Bang Theory:that the universe
began as an infinitely small point that
underwent expansion to form the universe as
we know it today.
Some illnesses are caused by microscopic organisms.
The germ theory of illness.
 That the planets in our solar system orbit around the
The heliocentric solar system.
 That the Earth is round, and not flat, or some other
The round earth theory
 That all matter is made up of atoms.
The atomic theory of matter
 Why
are these “facts” still considered
They are indeed facts, but they
still fit into the definition of
theory because they
intend to explain
Most theories cannot ever be transformed
into fact.
A theory is a general statement
intended to explain facts
The theory of evolution by natural selection
 Evolutionfact
 Scientists considered evolution a fact before
Darwin proposed his theory of natural
A law is similar to a theory in that it can
be used to make predictions, but is less
general and tends to be more
mathematical in nature.
 Newton’s
Laws of motion: statements about
how large objects made of atoms behave
when moving at low speeds relative to each
 The Laws of Thermodynamics: statements
about entropy, temperature, and thermal
 Law of Gravity: Every particle attracts every
other particle with a force that is
proportional to the product of their masses
and inversely proportional to the distance
between them.
Newton’s laws of motion break down when the
objects are very small or moving very fast
relative to other objects. Why do we keep
Because in everyday world situations they are
very good at predicting. Engineers use them
for designing sky scrapers and travel through
space is possible because of them even
though they are not always correct.
Remember also that most laws have never
been proven to be false!
theory is constructed most of all from
 Theories contain laws, but laws mean very
little without facts.
 Theories also contain logical inferences that
talk about how we know what we know.
 Accumulating all of these, the scientist
makes a general statement to explain all the
evidence. Other scientists reaffirm the facts
and use the theory to make predictions and
obtain new facts.