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Chapter 10
America Claims an Empire
Imperialism in America
Main Idea
• Beginning in 1867
and continuing
through the century,
global competition
caused the United
States to expand.
Why It Matters Now
• During this time period,
the U.S. acquired
Hawaii and Alaska,
both of which became
states in 1959.
What is Imperialism?
This idea was called
imperialism —the
policy in which
stronger nations
extend economic,
political or military
control over weaker
Europe was already doing this….where
was U.S. in this game?
Three Factors that Fueled Imperialism
• Three factors fueled
American imperialism:
1.The desire for military
2.New economic markets
3.Belief that American
culture was superior to
others. (ethnocentrism)
What idea did Admiral Alfred T.
Mahan suggest to American leaders?
• Admiral Alfred T. Mahan
of the U.S. Navy
supported growing
American naval power
so the U.S. could
compete with other
• The U.S. built such
modern battleships made
from steel as the Maine
and the Oregon. The new
ships made the U.S. the
world’s largest and most
powerful navy.
What did William Seward, Sec of
State Acquire from the Russians?
• William Seward was Secretary
of State for presidents Lincoln
and Andrew Johnson.
• In 1867 he purchased Alaska
from Russia for $7.2 million.
• Some opponents in Congress
made fun of the deal calling it
“Seward’s Icebox” or “Seward’s
Why did the U.S. have an interest
in Hawaii?
• The Hawaiian Islands =
financially (due to
sugar plantations).
– ¾ of Hawaii’s wealth
due to Americanowned sugar
It’s all about the taxes…
• In 1875, the U.S. agreed to
import Hawaiian sugar dutyfree (tax-free).
• McKinley Tariff (1890)
passed requiring American
plantation owners to PAY
– Called for the U.S. to annex
Hawaii. (didn’t want to pay
The End of a Monarchy
• Queen Liliuokalani (1891)
wanted to give more power
back to the Hawaiians NOT
the American business
• American business owners
organized revolt against
queen and took control of
• (1898) Hawaii became a
U.S. territory.
Why did the U.S. eventually get involved
with events surrounding Cuba?
1868-1878 Cubans fought for
their independence from
Sugar was important
investment for the U.S.
1. Treatment of cuban prisoners
2. De Lome Letter criticizing the
U.S. President
3. Battleship U.S.S. Maine was
De Lome
What is yellow journalism?
• Exaggerated news
to make events
more exciting
• Example: Treatment
of Cubans by the
Spanish to upset
Hearst to Frederick
You furnish the pictures,
and I’ll furnish the war!
What is significance of
U.S.S. Maine?
• U.S. battleship was
stationed in Cuba to
protect American
• February 15, 1898
the ship exploded.
• 260 Americans killed
• Blamed Spain for
What did Commodore George Dewey
accomplish in the war in the Philippines?
• May 1, 1898 American
naval commander
George Dewey sailed
into the Philippines to
destroy Spanish fleet.
• 2 months later,
Spanish surrendered
to the U.S. (VICTORY)
Who were the Rough Riders and
what did they accomplish?
• American troops landed
on the island of Cuba in
June 1898.
• One unit of volunteer
soldiers, led by T.
Roosevelt helped win the
important Battle of San
Juan Hill.
• RESULT= T.Roosevelt
becomes hero, will help
him win presidency later.
What did the Treaty of Paris of
1898 determine?
Spain quickly signed a peace
Treaty of Paris did the
1. Granted Cuba its
2. U.S. was given Puerto Rico &
3. Purchased Philippines for $20
Created problems
Imperialists vs. nonimperialists = violated Spirit of
Dec of Independence for U.S.
to colonize
Our “Sphere of Influence”
Imperialism --Policy of
extending the Rule of one
country over another.
1899 cartoon. Uncle
Sam balances his new
possessions, which
are depicted as
savage children. The
figures are identified
as Puerto Rico,
Hawaii, Cuba, and the
Platt Amendment
• Restricted Cuba in the conduct of foreign policy and
commercial relations
• The amendment also demanded that Cuba sell or lease
lands to the United States necessary for coaling or the
development of naval stations--Guantánamo Bay
• Protectorate
• Debt—They could not become indebted to any other
PR – Results of the SPAM War
Puerto Rico -American territory as a result
of the Spanish–American War.
American forces landed in Puerto Rico in
July 1898. The commanding officer
declared that the Americans were there to
protect the Puerto Ricans. Many Puerto
Ricans began to resent the military
In 1900, Congress passed the Foraker Act
which ended military rule and set up a civil
--1917 Puerto Ricans become U.S. citizens.
Emilio Aguinaldo--Filipino rebel who
fought against U.S.
The Philippines
--Filipinos had been fighting for independence
for years. They were angry that the United
States had annexed their islands.
--Rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo believed that
the US had promised independence. He felt that
the United States had betrayed the Filipinos
after helping them win independence. --1899,
Aguinaldo started a rebellion, which lasted 3
--After winning that war, the US set up a
government similar to the one it had set up in
-By 1899, many countries had economic
interests in China. The US wanted to be able
to trade with China.
-Secretary of State John Hay sent a statement
of this policy to the other countries. His policy
statements were called the Open Door Policy.
-They called for China’s ports to remain open
and for China to remain independent.
-No country would have special trading rights.
The other countries agreed.
Boxer Rebellion
• In 1900, a secret society in China started a
rebellion. They were protesting the
influence of Western countries in China.
Troops from many countries including the
US fought against the rebels, or Boxers.
After the Boxer Rebellion was defeated,
the US issued Open Door Policy to make
sure other countries did not make colonies
out of China.
Russo-Japanese War
-1901, President McKinley was assassinated, and
Theodore Roosevelt became president.
-Roosevelt continued the policies of imperialism. He first
used U.S. influence to help settle the Russo-Japanese
-The war began in 1904. Both Russia and Japan wanted to
control Korea. Japan captured Korea and also invaded
Manchuria, which was controlled by Russia.
-Japan wanted to stop the fighting. They asked President
Roosevelt to mediate the conflict.
-In 1905, representatives of Russia and Japan met.
Roosevelt used his personal charm to help them negotiate
a compromise. They signed a treaty, and Roosevelt
received the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts.
Panama Canal
-Roosevelt also used his influence to
help build the Panama Canal.
-The idea of a canal connecting the
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans had been
discussed for some time.
-Such a canal would cut travel time for
military and commercial ships. Ships
would no longer have to go all the way
around South America in order to get
from one ocean to the other.
Panama Canal
Roosevelt Corollary
-President Roosevelt wanted the US to be the major
power in the Caribbean and Central America.
-He declared his policy in a message to Congress in
1904. His statement was called the Roosevelt Corollary.
-The Roosevelt Corollary is an extension of the Monroe
Doctrine of 1823. That doctrine had said the US would
not allow European influence in the Western
- Roosevelt now said that the US had the right to
intervene in Latin American countries to protect U.S.
business interests.
Softly and
Carry a Big
 World’s
Dollar Diplomacy
• In 1911, President Taft used this policy in
Nicaragua. A rebellion had left the country in
debt. Taft arranged for U.S. bankers to loan
Nicaragua money.
• In exchange, American business took control of
the railroads and banks in the country. They also
collected Nicaragua’s custom duties
• Nicaraguans did not like this arrangement. They
rebelled. The United States then sent troops to
Nicaragua to preserve the peace.
• Those who did not like this kind of intervention
called it dollar diplomacy.
President Taft
Woodrow Wilson’s
Missionary Diplomacy
Intervention in
Pancho Villa
 Gen. John
-President Wilson took a step beyond
Presidents Monroe and Roosevelt by adding a
moral tone to Latin American policy.
-He said that the US must act in certain
circumstances. This so-called “missionary
diplomacy” meant that the US could not
officially recognize governments that were
oppressive, undemocratic, or opposed to U.S.
business interests. -The new doctrine put
pressure on countries to have democratic
-A revolution in Mexico tested this policy.
-Under the leadership of Francisco “Pancho” Villa
and Emiliano Zapata, rebels revolted.
-Some of Villa’s followers killed Americans. The
United States wanted to capture Villa.
-Finally the Mexican government gave permission to
send in troops. Wilson sent General John J. Pershing
with 15,000 soldiers.
-A year later, Villa was still free. Wilson then
stationed 150,000 National Guardsmen along the
-Mexicans were angered by the U.S. invasion.
-In 1917, Wilson withdrew U.S. troops. At that time, he
was facing possible war in Europe. (WWI)
-Finally, Mexico adopted a constitution.
Francisco “Pancho” Villa.
• Raided
Columbus, New
Mexico, killing
17 Americans.
US army sent to
find him
• American intervention in Mexico showed
how far the United States was willing to go to
protect its economic interests.
• In the early 20th century, the U.S pursued
several foreign policy goals. It expanded its
access to foreign markets.
• It built a modern navy to protect its interest
• It used its international police power to
ensure dominance in Latin America