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President James Monroe Won the Election of 1816 and reelection in 1820. Era of Good FeelingsPeriod during his Presidency where there was little political fighting 1st President to tour the country since Washington Monroe DoctrineStatement by Monroe in a speech that warned European countries of any new colonization in North and South America. McCullough vs. Maryland (1819) The state of Maryland tried to tax a branch of the Bank of the United States in Baltimore to show that the Bank was unconstitutional. Branch manager, James McCullough, refused to pay the tax as it was a federal bank. In a unanimous decision, the Supreme Court said that states had to no power to interfere with federal institutions, and states cannot pass any law that violates a federal law. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall stated the “necessary and proper clause” of the Constitution allows the Bank of the United States to exist which would serve as a precedent for the expansion of federal power. Election of 1824 Candidates: John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, and William Harris Crawford No candidate secured a majority so the decision went to the House of Representatives (Only top 3 candidates to chose from so Clay was left out) Since Clay was Speaker of the House, he put his support behind Adams as he hated Andrew Jackson. (Adams made him Secretary of State) Andrew Jackson would rally his supporters to defeat John Quincy Adams in the Election of 1828 JACKSON’S STRUGGLE WITH NATIVE AMERICANS President Andrew Jackson (1829-1837) “People’s President” Veteran of Rev. War, War of 1812, and the Indian Wars Backed white settlers moving onto Native American Land INDIAN REMOVAL ACT OF 1830 Cherokee sued the federal government for allowing white settlers to take their land in Georgia in 1828. Chief Justice John Marshall sided with the Cherokee saying it was unconstitutional. Jackson ignored the Supreme Court ruling and continued to use the power of the presidency to push the Natives west. INDIAN REMOVAL ACT OF 1830 Jackson signed this legislation into law in 1830. Act provided funds for the federal government to remove Native Americans from the Eastern United States. Cherokee’s held out until 1838 when they were militarily forced to move west. TRAIL OF TEARS Cherokee leader John Ross led his people west of the Mississippi River. Marched through brutal winter across the Great Plains. 4,000 Cherokee died. “The Trail Where They Cried” MANIFEST DESTINY Push-Pull Factors - events and conditions that either force (push) people to move elsewhere or strongly attract (pull) them to do so. Manifest Destiny- is the desire to control and populate the entire continent from the Atlantic to the Pacific Appetite for profit and conquest Sense of adventure THE OREGON COUNTRY Included the land of future states such as Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and parts of Wyoming and Montana. Many trappers went to Oregon for the Beaver skin. Between 1840-1860 more than 60,000 traveled the Oregon Trail from Independence, Missouri to the Columbia River. The Mormon Trail Christian Sect known as “The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.” Because of continuous persecution from New York to Illinois, the leader at the time Brigham Young decided to go west. In 1847, Young and 15,000 Mormons took the 1,300 mile trip from Iowa to Salt Lake in Utah. THE GOLD RUSH January 1848. Gold found in American River in California. Rumors of large gold mines fueled 80,000 gold seekers to California in 1849. Known as “forty-niners” Traveled the southern part of the Oregon Trail and used the Mormon Trail as well.