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America Claims an
Does the U.S. have a duty to fight
for freedom in neighboring
Imperialism and America
Main Idea
Beginning in 1867 and continuing through the
century, global competition caused the
United States to expand.
Why it Matters Today
During this time period, the United States
acquired Hawaii and Alaska, both of which
became states in 1959.
One American’s Story
► Queen
► Haoles-white
American Expansionism
► America
had always sought to expand the
size of their nation.
► America to join imperialist power in Europe
and establish colonies overseas.
► Imperialism- policy in which stronger
nations extend their economic, political, or
military control over weaker territories.
Global Competition
► Africa
was a prime target of European
 Ethiopia and Liberia- remained independent
► Imperialist
competed for Asia
 Japan joined European nations in competition
World Colonial Empires, 1900
Three Factors Fueled the New
American Imperialism
Three Factors
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Need for raw materials
New markets for goods
Social Darwinism
Spread Christianity
“Civilize” people
The U.S. Acquires Alaska
► William
Seward- Secretary of State
under presidents Abraham Lincoln
and Andrew Johnson.
► U.S. to buy Alaska for $7.2 million
from Russia
 “Seward’s Icebox”, “Seward’s Folly”
 1959 became a state. About 2 cents an
 Land rich with minerals, timber, and oil.
The U.S. Takes Hawaii
► 1867-
U.S. took over
the Midway Islands
just north of Hawaii
► Hawaii was
economically and
militarily important.
U.S. & Hawaii
Cry for Annexation
End of a Monarchy
Duty Free Sugar
1887-Pearl Harbor
John L. Stevens
Sanford D. Dole
1898-Hawaii annexed
1959-50th State
Hawaiian Islands
Roots of Imperialism
Rivalry w/others imperialist
Const. of modern Naval Fleet
Roots of U.S.
Foreign trade,
Competition from
other nations
Combining Social
Darwinism w/Anglo
Spread Christianity
Imperialism and America
► What
three factors spurred American
 Economic Competition
 Political and Military Competition
 Racial Superiority
► How
did Queen Lilioukalani’s main goal
conflict with American imperialist goals?
 She wanted to preserve Hawaii for Hawaiians,
while Americans wanted to annex the islands.
Spanish-American War
Main Idea
In 1898, the United States went to war to
help Cuba win its independence from Spain.
Why it Matters Today
U.S. involvement in Latin America and Asia
increased greatly as a result of the war and
continuous today.
Cubans Rebel Against Spain
► By
the end of the 19th century-Spain had lost most
of its colonies. It retained only the Philippines and
the island of Guam, some outposts in Africa, and
the Caribbean islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico.
Preludes to War
America interested in Sugar
Cubans revolt 1868 & 1878
Revolt not successful
Abolished slavery-1886
Jose Marti- Cuba Libre!
Americans were split on the issue
War Fever Escalates
► Spain
responded by
sending General
Valeriano Weyler to
suppress the Cuban
USS Fever
De Lome
War with Spain
► America
attacks in the Philippines
 April 30, Commodore George
Dewey opened fire on the Spanish
fleet at Manila
 7 hours to capture the fleet.
 Americans join Filipino rebels led by
Emilio Aguinaldo.
War with Spain: Pacific Theater
War in the Caribbean
War in the
San Juan
War with Spain: Caribbean
Treaty of Paris Debate
► Debate
over annexation of the Philippines
► Opponents formed the Anti-Imperialist
► February, 1899--ratification of peace treaty
makes U.S. a colonizing nation
American Empire, 1900
The Spanish-American War
► Why
was American opinion about Cuban
independence divided?
 U.S. businessmen sided with Spain because they
wanted to protect their investments. The Americans,
however, sympathized with the Cuban demand for
► Briefly
describe the terms of the Treaty of Paris of
 Cuba’s independence; Spain’s relinquishing of Puerto
Rico and Guam demand for independence.
Acquiring New Lands
Main Idea
In the early 1900’s, the United States
engaged in conflicts in Puerto Rico, Cuba,
and the Philippines.
Why it Matter Today
Today, the United States maintains a strong
military and political presence in strategic
worldwide location.
Ruling Puerto Rico
► After
the Spanish-American war, the United States
didn’t promise Puerto Ricans independence.
Puerto Rico
Military Rule
Return to
Civil Government
Gen. Nelson A. Miles
Foraker Act
1901- Insular Cases
Cuba and the United States
► 1898-
U.S. recognized Cuba’s independence and
passed the Teller Amendment.
 Stated the U.S. had no intention of taking over any part
of Cuba.
American Soldiers
Platt Amendment
Couldn’t make treaties
U.S. could intervene
Cuba no debt
U.S. could lease land
Protecting American
Business Interest
Filipinos Rebel
► Emilio
Aguilnaldo- rebel leader
► Philippine-American War
 Feb. 1899-rose to revolt
 70,000 U.S. troops sent- majority AfricanAmericans
 Took nearly 3 years to put down the rebellion.
► Aftermath
of the War
 Government set up much like Puerto Rico
 Finally became independent on July 4, 1946.
Foreign Influence in China
► Weakened
by war and foreign intervention, China
became vulnerable to foreign countries.
Am. Rights
Jon Hay
Open Door Notes
Protecting American Rights
► Open
Door Policy reflected three deeply
held American beliefs about the U.S.
industrial capitalist economy:
 U.S. growth depended upon exports
 U.S. had right to intervene to keep foreign
markets open
 Closing areas to American products, citizens, or
ideas threatened U.S. survival.
The Impact of U.S. Territorial Gains
► Anti-imperialist
vs. Imperialist
 McKinley is re-elected-strong imperialist
 Anti-Imperialist League
prominent officials
Acquiring New Lands
Why was the U.S. interested in events in Puerto Rico?
 Puerto Rico was strategically important to the U.S. as a way to
assert its presence in the Caribbean and as a base for protecting a
possible canal through Panama.
What sparked the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, and how was it
 The Boxers staged a revolt to expel foreigners from China. In
August 1900, troops from Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and the
U.S. marched on the Chinese capital. The International force put
an end to the rebellion.
What three key beliefs about America's industrial capitalist
economy were reflected in the Open Door Policy?
 U.S. dependence on exports for growth, U.S. right to intervene to
keep markets open, closing an area to American products threaten
U.S. survival.
America as a World Power
Main Idea
The Russo-Japanese War, the Panama Canal,
and the Mexican Revolution added to
America’s military and economic power.
Why it Matter Today
American involvement in conflicts around
1900 led to involvement in World War I and
later to a peacekeeper role in today’s world.
Teddy Roosevelt and the World
► The
assassination of William McKinley in 1901
thrust Vice-President Teddy Roosevelt into the role
of a world leader.
Roosevelt &
The World
Roosevelt Peacemaker
Panama Canal
1904-Russia declares
War on Japan
Treaty of Portsmouth
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty-1901
$10 million + $250,000 annually
Roosevelt and the World
Constructing the Canal
 Builders battled disease
 Workers were from Spain,
Italy; ¾ were blacks from
the West Indies;
 5,600 died from accidents
or disease
 August 15, 1914- Canal
Roosevelt Corollary
 “Speak softly and carry a
big stick”
 1904- Roosevelt CorollaryU.S. would use force to
protect its economic
interests in Latin America
Roosevelt and the World
► Dollar
 American banker loaned money to Nicaragua to
pay debts.
 Bankers gained control of Nicaragua’s stateowned railroad system and its national bank.
 People revolted against Pres. Adolfo Diaz.
 Taft administration used the policy of using U.S.
government loans made to foreign countries by
American businesspeople. Dollar Diplomacy.
Woodrow Wilson’s Missionary
Monroe Doctrine in 1823 warned against any nations
expanding their influence in Latin America.
Wilson’s “Missionary Diplomacy”, had a moral responsibility
to deny any Latin American government it viewed
oppressive, or hostile to U.S. interest.
Mexican Revolution
Intervention in Mexico
Rebellion in Mexico
Porfirio Diaz overthrown
Gen. Victoriano Huerta
Wilson invades Veracruz
Venustiano Carranza
“Pancho” Villa
Emiliano Zapata
Activities of the United States in the
Caribbean, 1898-1930
Chasing Villa
► President
Wilson ordered Gen. John Pershing an
about 15,000 soldiers to capture Villa dead or
► Troops clash with Mexican army in 1916.
► Pershing is ordered home in 1917.
► U.S. pursued and achieved several foreign policy
goals in the early 20th century.
 Expanded access to foreign markets
 U.S. built a modern day navy
 U.S. exercised its police power to ensure dominance in
Latin America
America as a World Power
What conflict triggered the war with Russia and Japan?
 A dispute over Korea
Why is the construction of the Panama Canal considered
one of the world’s greatest engineering feats?
 Workers fought disease, such as yellow fever and
bubonic plague. Volcanic soil was difficult to remove.
Thousands died.
Explain the key difference between Woodrow Wilson’s
moral diplomacy and Teddy Roosevelt’s “big stick”
 “Big stick” diplomacy demanded that European
countries stay out of the affairs of Latin America.
Wilson’s “moral diplomacy” demanded that countries in
Lain America set up democracies.