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Transcript
The American Nation
Chapter 10
The Age of Jefferson
1801–1816
Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
The American Nation
Chapter 10: The Age of Jefferson 1801–1816
Section 1:
A Republican Takes Office
Section 2:
The Louisiana Purchase
Section 3:
New Threats from Overseas
Section 4:
The Road to War
Section 5:
The War of 1812
Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
A Republican Takes Office
Chapter 10, Section 1
• How did Jefferson’s presidency reflect a
democratic style?
• What actions did Jefferson take to reduce
the power of the federal government?
• How did Chief Justice John Marshall
strengthen the Supreme Court?
Jefferson’s Democratic Style
Chapter 10, Section 1
Jefferson wanted to make the government more
democratic, which means ensuring that all people have the
same rights.
• He made his inauguration a low-key affair instead of a
fancy one.
• He preferred quiet dinners to formal parties.
• To show that the President was an ordinary citizen, he
wore casual clothes and greeted people by shaking
hands instead of bowing.
• He promised that although his party, the Republicans,
were in the majority, he would not treat the Federalists
harshly. In his inaugural address, he said, “The minority
possess their equal rights, which equal laws must
protect.”
Jefferson’s Economic Policies
Chapter 10, Section 1
• Jefferson believed that one way to lessen
government power was to reduce the federal
budget.
• Jefferson believed in the economic idea known as
laissez faire, a policy in which the government
plays as small a role as possible in economic
affairs.
• Instead the economy relies on a free market
where goods and services are exchanged with
little regulation.
Jefferson Reduced the Power of the Federal Government
Chapter 10, Section 1
• Tries to cut federal budget
and reduce federal debt
• Promotes laissez-faire
policies in economic affairs
• Decreases the size of
government departments
• Reduces the size of the
army and navy
• Asks Congress to repeal
the whiskey tax
Goal: Reconcile Party Differences
Policies
Policies
Goal: Reduce Size of Government
• Retains the Bank of the
United States
• Continues to pay off state
debts using federal
moneys
• Allows many Federalists to
keep their government jobs
Chief Justice Marshall and the Supreme Court
Chapter 10, Section 1
•
•
•
•
•
John Adams had appointed John Marshall as Chief Justice of the
Supreme Court. Marshall was a Federalist.
Marshall found the courts to be weaker than other branches of
government.
When William Marbury sued Secretary of State James Madison,
the case came before the Supreme Court. The Judiciary Act of
1789 said the Supreme Court could decide cases against federal
officials.
In the Supreme Court’s decision in the case of Marbury v.
Madison, Marshall wrote that the Constitution didn’t give the
Supreme Court the right to hear such a case, and Congress could
not give it the right. Therefore, the Judiciary Act of 1789 was
unconstitutional.
The decision in Marbury v. Madison set a precedent. It gave the
Supreme Court the power of judicial review—the power to decide
whether laws passed by Congress were constitutional and to
reject laws that it considered unconstitutional.
Section 1 Assessment
Chapter 10, Section 1
Jefferson believed in a free market, which is
a) a grocery store run by ordinary farmers.
b) an economy in which goods and services are exchanged with little
regulation.
c) an economy in which the government works to promote trade and
manufacturing.
d) an economic situation with high government spending and high
government debt.
In the case of Marbury v. Madison, Chief Justice Marshall
a) reduced the power of the Supreme Court.
b) established the Supreme Court’s power of judicial review.
c) established the Supreme Court’s power to decide cases against
federal officials.
d) upheld the Judiciary Act.
Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.
Section 1 Assessment
Chapter 10, Section 1
Jefferson believed in a free market, which is
a) a grocery store run by ordinary farmers.
b) an economy in which goods and services are exchanged with little
regulation.
c) an economy in which the government works to promote trade and
manufacturing.
d) an economic situation with high government spending and high
government debt.
In the case of Marbury v. Madison, Chief Justice Marshall
a) reduced the power of the Supreme Court.
b) established the Supreme Court’s power of judicial review.
c) established the Supreme Court’s power to decide cases against
federal officials.
d) upheld the Judiciary Act.
Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.
The Louisiana Purchase
Chapter 10, Section 2
• Why was control of the Mississippi River
important to the United States?
• How did the United States purchase
Louisiana?
• What were the results of the explorations
of Lewis and Clark and of Zebulon Pike?
Control of the Mississippi River
Chapter 10, Section 2
• Farmers west of the Appalachians shipped their crops on
the Mississippi to New Orleans. From there, ships carried
the produce to Atlantic ports.
• Spain controlled New Orleans. Sometimes they threatened
to close the port. In the Pinckney Treaty of 1795, Spain
agreed to let Americans ship their goods down the
Mississippi to New Orleans.
• In 1800 Spain gave Louisiana back to France. Napoleon
wanted to grow food in Louisiana.
• Events in Haiti, a French colony in the Caribbean, ruined
his plans. Enslaved Africans in Haiti revolted and declared
their independence.
• To gain control of Louisiana, Jefferson decided to buy
Louisiana.
The United States Buys Louisiana
Chapter 10, Section 2
• Jefferson sent Robert Livingston and James Monroe
to buy New Orleans and West Florida from Napoleon.
• Livingston and Monroe met with the French foreign
minister. After some time, he asked them if they would
like to buy all of Louisiana.
• Surprised, Livingston at first offered $4 million.
Eventually, he and Monroe agreed to $15 million.
• No one was sure the purchase was constitutional. In
the end, Jefferson decided that he did have the
authority to buy Louisiana. The Senate approved the
treaty, and the Louisiana Purchase went into effect.
The Expedition of Lewis and Clark
Chapter 10, Section 2
Purpose of the expedition, or long journey of exploration
• to map a route across the Louisiana Purchase to the Pacific Ocean
• to study the territory’s geography—land, climate, plants, and animals
• to learn about the Indian nations who lived there
The journey
• Lewis and Clark left from St. Louis and crossed the plains by way of
the Missouri River. Sacagawea, a Shoshone woman, and her husband
agreed to accompany the party as translators.
• The Shoshones showed Lewis and Clark the best route over the
Rockies. Lewis and Clark crossed the Continental Divide, the high
mountain ridge that separates river systems flowing toward opposite
sides of the continent.
• The party built canoes and floated down the Columbia River to the
Pacific Ocean.
• The return trip back to St. Louis took another year.
The Expedition of Zebulon Pike
Chapter 10, Section 2
Purpose of the journey was
• to explore the upper Mississippi River, the
Arkansas River, and parts of present-day
Colorado and New Mexico.
The journey
• From Colorado and New Mexico, Pike entered
Spanish territory. Spanish troops arrested Pike
and his men and took them into Mexico.
• The party was later escorted through Texas back
to the United States.
The Expeditions of Lewis and Clark and Zebulon Pike
Chapter 10, Section 2
Section 2 Assessment
Chapter 10, Section 2
Why was control of the Mississippi River important to Americans in the early
1800s?
a) Farmers west of the Appalachian Mountains used the Mississippi to
get their goods to market.
b) The Mississippi River was the first step in the journey of Lewis and
Clark.
c) Toussaint L’Ouverture could attack the French in Haiti from the port of
New Orleans.
d) Jefferson was interested in the Native Americans who lived along the
river.
One purpose of the Lewis and Clark expedition was to
a) prove that the Louisiana Purchase was constitutional.
b) find a route into Spanish territory.
c) bring back information about the territory’s geography.
d) lead settlers into the western lands.
Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.
Section 2 Assessment
Chapter 10, Section 2
Why was control of the Mississippi River important to Americans in the early
1800s?
a) Farmers west of the Appalachian Mountains used the Mississippi to
get their goods to market.
b) The Mississippi River was the first step in the journey of Lewis and
Clark.
c) Toussaint L’Ouverture could attack the French in Haiti from the port of
New Orleans.
d) Jefferson was interested in the Native Americans who lived along the
river.
One purpose of the Lewis and Clark expedition was to
a) prove that the Louisiana Purchase was constitutional.
b) find a route into Spanish territory.
c) bring back information about the territory’s geography.
d) lead settlers into the western lands.
Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.
New Threats From Overseas
Chapter 10, Section 3
• What were the benefits and risks of
overseas trade?
• How did the British and French violate the
neutrality of American ships?
• Why did Jefferson decide to impose an
embargo?
Benefits and Risks of Overseas Trade
Chapter 10, Section 3
Benefits
• Yankee traders built up a
profitable trade, for example,
trade with India, with China, and
in the Pacific Northwest
Risks
• One great risk was pirates.
Pirates from the Barbary States
on the north coast of North Africa
attacked vessels in the
Mediterranean Sea. To protect
American ships, the rulers of
those states demanded a yearly
tribute, or bribe.
• When Jefferson refused to pay,
one of the Barbary States, Tripoli,
declared war on the United
States. Jefferson blockaded the
port of Tripoli. American marines
launched a surprise attack. The
ruler of Tripoli agreed not to
interfere with American ships.
The British and French Violate the Neutrality of
American Ships
Chapter 10, Section 3
• Britain and France went to war again in 1803.
• American merchants traded with both sides.
• Neither side wanted Americans to trade with the
other side. The French seized American ships
bound for England. The British seized American
ships bound for France.
• The British also stepped up impressment, the
practice of forcing people into service. They
seized young men from English villages and both
English and American-born sailors from
American ships.
• Angry Americans called for war.
Jefferson and the Embargo
Chapter 10, Section 3
• Hoping to hurt France and Britain by cutting off
supplies, Jefferson proposed an embargo, or ban on
trade.
• He persuaded Congress to pass the Embargo Act, which
hurt Britain and France but hurt Americans even more.
• Merchants protested against the embargo. Some turned
to smuggling, importing or exporting goods in violation
of trade laws.
• Jefferson used troops to enforce the embargo.
• Jefferson admitted that the Embargo Act had failed.
• Congress replaced the Embargo Act with the
Nonintercourse Act, which said Americans could trade
with all nations except Britain and France.
Section 3 Assessment
Chapter 10, Section 3
In the early 1800s, Britain ignored American claims of neutrality by stopping
American ships and
a) forcing the Americans to pay tribute.
b) seizing French sailors.
c) seizing American sailors.
d) buying supplies right off the ships.
To hurt Britain and France so they would leave American ships alone,
Jefferson tried an embargo, which means
a) violating trade laws.
b) banning trade.
c) stocking up on imports.
d) protesting loudly against trade laws.
Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.
Section 3 Assessment
Chapter 10, Section 3
In the early 1800s, Britain ignored American claims of neutrality by stopping
American ships and
a) forcing the Americans to pay tribute.
b) seizing French sailors.
c) seizing American sailors.
d) buying supplies right off the ships.
To hurt Britain and France so they would leave American ships alone,
Jefferson tried an embargo, which means
a) violating trade laws.
b) banning trade.
c) stocking up on imports.
d) protesting loudly against trade laws.
Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.
The Road to War
Chapter 10, Section 4
• Why did conflicts between white settlers
and Native Americans increase during the
early 1800s?
• What was the goal of Tecumseh’s Native
American confederation?
• Why did the War Hawks push for war
against Britain?
Early Conflicts Between Settlers and Native Americans
Chapter 10, Section 4
• Between 1790 and 1810, 900,000 settlers moved west of the
Appalachians. They built farms on Indian lands and hunted
animals the Indians needed for food.
• Settlers ignored treaties that the United States government
had signed with Indian nations.
• Fighting often broke out between Native Americans and
settlers. In 1791 Indians drove settlers from Ohio.
• American forces under General Anthony Wayne defeated
the Miamis and other Indian nations at Fallen Timbers, in
present-day Ohio.
• In 1795, the Miamis and other Indian nations signed the
Treaty of Greenville, in which they gave up land that would
later become part of Ohio. In return, they received $20,000
and the promise of more money if they kept the peace.
Conflicts Between Settlers and Native Americans
Chapter 10, Section 4
Tecumseh’s Confederation
Chapter 10, Section 4
What Tecumseh
and his brother,
The Prophet,
believed
• They could keep settlers from taking more Indian land.
• By returning to the old ways, Indians could gain the
power to resist white invaders.
What the
Prophet did
• Built a village for his followers along Tippecanoe
Creek in Indiana Territory.
What Tecumseh
did
• Worked to organize Indian nations between the
Mississippi River and the Appalachian Mountains into
a confederation, or league.
• Called for unity against the settlers.
What the United
States did
• Troops under Governor William Henry Harrison
marched against Prophetstown. The Prophet led a
surprise attack on Harrison’s troops. In the Battle of
Tippecanoe, both sides suffered heavy losses.
Harrison’s troops defeated the Prophet’s forces.
Why the War Hawks Pushed for War with Britain
Chapter 10, Section 4
•
•
•
•
•
•
The British were supplying guns and ammunition to Native Americans on
the frontier. They encouraged Indians to attack settlements.
President Madison said that if either the British or French would stop
seizing American ships, the United States would stop trading the other
nation. France agreed to stop, so the United States traded with France but
not with Britain.
The War Hawks were members of Congress from the South and the West
who called for war. They were stirred by nationalism, or devotion to one’s
country. They said Britain was treating the United States as if it were a
British colony.
One War Hawk, Henry Clay, hoped that in a war the United States could
conquer Canada.
Other War Hawks said that in a war with Britain, the United States could
seize Florida from Britain’s ally, Spain.
To cut off American trade with France, British warships blockaded
American ports. Finally in June 1812, Congress declared war on Britain.
Section 4 Assessment
Chapter 10, Section 4
Tecumseh and the Prophet tried to organize a confederation of Indian nations
in order to
a) keep settlers from taking any more Indian land.
b) drive the British out of Ohio for good.
c) oppose Native American rivals west of the Mississippi.
d) build more settlements like Prophetstown.
One reason the United States declared war on Britain in 1812 was that
a) Americans hoped a war would bring them more trade with Canada.
b) Spain threatened to sell Florida to Britain.
c) Britain kept trading with France.
d) Britain continued to seize American ships.
Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.
Section 4 Assessment
Chapter 10, Section 4
Tecumseh and the Prophet tried to organize a confederation of Indian nations
in order to
a) keep settlers from taking any more Indian land.
b) drive the British out of Ohio for good.
c) oppose Native American rivals west of the Mississippi.
d) build more settlements like Prophetstown.
One reason the United States declared war on Britain in 1812 was that
a) Americans hoped a war would bring them more trade with Canada.
b) Spain threatened to sell Florida to Britain.
c) Britain kept trading with France.
d) Britain continued to seize American ships.
Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.
The War of 1812
Chapter 10, Section 5
• How was the United States unprepared
early in the war?
• What successes did Americans have in
the West?
• How did the final battles of the war
progress?
• Why did New Englanders protest against
the war?
The United States Was Not Prepared for War
Chapter 10, Section 5
• The United States Navy had only 16 ships. The
British had a huge fleet.
• The United States Army was small and ill
equipped. Many officers knew little about warfare.
• The government relied on volunteers, who were
poorly trained and had little experience in battle.
Many deserted.
The War of 1812 in the West
Chapter 10, Section 5
The invasion of
Canada
General William Hull led American troops into Canada.
The Canadians made it look like their forces were large
and included experienced British troops. The Americans
retreated.
Battle of Lake
Erie
Captain Oliver Hazard Perry designed and built his own
ships. Perry’s fleet met a British fleet on Lake Erie. The
Americans won the battle.
Battle of the
Thames
General William Henry Harrison’s troops pursued a
British force and their ally Tecumseh toward Canada.
The Americans won a victory at the Battle of the Thames.
Tecumseh died in the battle.
Battle of
Horseshoe
Bend
Andrew Jackson and American troops defeated the
Creeks. The Americans won the battle.
The Final Battles of the War of 1812
Chapter 10, Section 5
Bladensburg,
Maryland
British troops marching toward Washington, D.C., met
American troops about 30 miles from Washington. The
British scattered the Americans.
Washington,
D.C.
The British set fire to the White House and other
buildings, then set off for Baltimore.
Baltimore,
Maryland
The British bombarded the harbor but were unable to
take Fort McHenry. They withdrew. Francis Scott Key
wrote “The Star-Spangled Banner” about this battle.
New Orleans
The British attacked the city. Andrew Jackson led a
strong force of frontiersmen and Choctaw Indians.
Citizens of New Orleans, including African Americans,
joined his forces. British losses were heavy. The
American forces won a victory at the Battle of New
Orleans.
The Final Battles of the War of 1812
Chapter 10, Section 5
New Englanders Protest the War
Chapter 10, Section 5
• The British blockade hurt New England’s sea trade.
• New Englanders feared that the United States might win
land in Florida and Canada, which would become new
states. That would make the South and the West more
influential than New England.
• Delegates from New England states met at the Hartford
Convention, in Hartford, Connecticut. They threatened to
leave the Union if the war continued.
• While the Hartford Convention was still meeting, news of a
peace treaty arrived.
• The Treaty of Ghent ended the War of 1812. It was named
after the city in Belgium where it was signed. In the treaty,
Britain and the United States agreed to go back to the way
things were before the war.
Section 5 Assessment
Chapter 10, Section 5
When the British reached Washington, D.C. in 1814, they
a) met in person with James Madison.
b) set fire to the White House and other buildings.
c) skirmished with American troops and then retreated.
d) found documents that helped them win the war.
The treaty that ended the War of 1812
a) gave Britain use of the Port of New Orleans.
b) said Britain had to stop forcing American sailors into service.
c) returned conditions between Britain and the United States to the way
they had been before the war.
d) made Britain recognize American neutrality.
Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.
Section 5 Assessment
Chapter 10, Section 5
When the British reached Washington, D.C. in 1814, they
a) met in person with James Madison.
b) set fire to the White House and other buildings.
c) skirmished with American troops and then retreated.
d) found documents that helped them win the war.
The treaty that ended the War of 1812
a) gave Britain use of the Port of New Orleans.
b) said Britain had to stop forcing American sailors into service.
c) returned conditions between Britain and the United States to the way
they had been before the war.
d) made Britain recognize American neutrality.
Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.