Cold War: Beginnings • The Yalta Conference: --sometimes called the Crimea Conference and -codenamed the Argonaut Conference -- February 4, 1945 to February 11, 1945 • Heads of Government – United Kingdom Winston Churchill (Left) – United States Franklin D. Roosevelt (Center) – Soviet Union (USSR) Joseph Stalin (Right) - YALTA Comparative Soviet Losses in WW II U.S. UK FR • Country Population 1939 132m 47.9m 41.7m • Military deaths 407.3k 382.6k 212k • Civilian deaths 11.2k 67.8k 267k • Jewish Holocaust deaths n/a n/a 83k • Total deaths 418.5k 450.4k 562k • Deaths/ % of population .32% .94% 1.35% USSR 168.5m 10.7m 11.5m 1.0m 23.2m 13.77% The Decision I • Justification for bombing to save heavy losses is not universally accepted. • Some sources estimate potential U.S. casualties as significantly lower—perhaps as low as 50,000 men. • Not entirely clear that an unconditional Japanese surrender was impossible, especially if Russia had entered the war before the bombing. • Russia officially declared war on Japan on August 8, two days after the destruction of Hiroshima. The Decision II • Some suggest that Truman, fearing a Soviet attempt to dominate the postwar Asian order as it had the Eastern European, ordered the bombing to force Japan's surrender before Russia had the chance to enter the fray (and thus earn the right to affect the peace settlement). • Truman may also have wanted to intimidate his potential rival Stalin with the United States' new destructive capability. Post War Reflections Read Handout: – The "Soviet Experience in World War II” – Consider the sacrifices, losses and legacy of World War II upon Russia. – Write a 75-100 word response, addressing the impact of Russian experiences in World War II upon the Soviet psyche leading into the Cold War. POTSDAM DECLARATION • Also: Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender • Issued July 26, 1945 by Harry S. Truman, Winston Churchill and Chiang Kai-Shek. • Outlined terms of surrender for Japan as agreed upon at the Potsdam Conference. • If Japan did not surrender, it would face "prompt & utter destruction." • Japan failed to respond to the declaration. Potsdam Points • Militarism in Japan must end. • Japan would be occupied until the basic objectives set out in this proclamation were met. • Japanese sovereignty limited to the islands of Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, Shikoku and such minor islands as the Allies determined. • Japanese army would be completely disarmed and allowed to return home. • War criminals would be punished including those who had "visited cruelties upon our prisoners." Potsdam Points cont… • Freedoms of speech, religion and thought--as well as respect for the fundamental human rights shall be established. • Japan should be permitted to maintain a viable industrial economy but not industries which would enable her to re-arm for war. • Allied forces would be withdrawn from Japan as soon as these objectives have been accomplished. • "We call upon the government of Japan to proclaim now the unconditional surrender of all Japanese armed forces, and to provide proper and adequate assurances of their good faith in such action. The alternative for Japan is prompt and utter destruction." TRUMAN DOCTRINE • It is often cited by historians as the start of the Cold War. • The Truman Doctrine was 12 March 1947. • U.S. would support Greece & Turkey w) military & economic aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet orbit. • The Doctrine shifted American foreign policy towards the Soviet Union from “détente” to, as George F. Kennan phrased it, a policy of “containment.” MARSHALL PLAN • The Marshall Plan was known officially following its enactment as the European Recovery Program (ERP). • The primary plan of the United States: rebuild the allied countries of Europe and repel communism after World War II. • Initiative named for United States Secretary of State George Marshall and was largely the creation of State Department officials, especially William L. Clayton and George F. Kennan. • Reconstruction plan developed at a meeting of the participating European states in July 1947. • Marshall Plan offered the same aid to the Soviet Union and its allies, if they would make political reforms and accept certain outside controls. NATO • The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), – also called the North Atlantic Alliance – the Atlantic Alliance – or the Western Alliance • International organization for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. • Headquarters in Brussels, Belgium. Its other official name is the French equivalent, – l'Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord (OTAN) – English and French are the two official languages of the organization. NATO • MISSION:. • NATO was founded early in the Cold War with the express aim of defending western Europe against a military invasion by the Soviet Union. • MEMBERSHIP: – The Treaty of Brussels, signed on 17 March 1948 is considered the precursor to the NATO--members included… •Belgium •the Netherlands •Luxembourg •France • the United Kingdom Greece and Turkey also joined in 1952. NATO added the following to the Brussels Members… •The United States •Canada •Portugal •Italy •Norway •Denmark •Iceland Key Events in Asia • 38th Parallel as Dividing Line – Set in 1945…end of WWII – South: Singnan Rhee North: Kim Il Sung • North Receives Communist Aid: – USSR: Equipment PRC: Training • 1949 Jiang Jieshi <Nationalist> out Mao Zedong <Communist> in – People’s Republic of China • Fear of spreading Communism in Asia • NSC-68 1950 – “Slavery vs. Freedom” “Fanatic Faith” • June 1950: North Korea Invades South – Depleted U.S./ROK forces “Pusan Perimeter” BERLIN BLOCKADE • The Berlin Blockade (June 24, 1948 to May 11, 1949) became one of the first major crises of the new Cold War. • Soviet Union blocked railroad and street access to West Berlin. • Crisis ended after Soviet Union did not act to stop American, British and French humanitarian airlifts of food and other provisions to the Western-held sectors of Berlin. • Referred to as Operation Vittles by the Americans and Operation Plainfare by the British. BERLIN REGIONS BERLIN AIRLIFT • 278,228 flights • 2,326,406 tons of food and supplies, including more than 1.5 million tons of coal, were delivered to Berlin. • At the height of the operation, on April 16, 1949, an allied aircraft landed in Berlin every minute, with 1,398 flights in 24 hours carrying 12,940 tons (13,160 t) of goods, coal and machinery, beating the record of 8,246 (8,385 t) set only days earlier. • USSR lifted blockade at 00:01, on May 12, 1949. • However, the airlift did not end until September 30, as the Western nations wanted to build up sufficient amounts of supplies in West Berlin in case the Soviets blockaded it again. Korean War North Korea • Democratic People's Republic of Korea – official name: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk • Gojoseon was an ancient Korean kingdom. – North Korea led by Kim Il-sung from 1948 until his death on July 8, 1994, then son: – Kim Jong-Il current. – The government predominantly • Korean Workers' Party (KWP) • 80 percent of government officials belong. – 5th-largest military in the world • Largest % of citizens enlisted – (49.03 active troops per thousand citizens). – 1.08m troops vs. 686,000 South Korean troops • 3.5 million paramilitary forces • plus 29,000 US troops in South Korea. State of Mind • 2004 • Film by Daniel Gordon & Nick Bonner • Filmed in North Korea • “93 unblinking minutes of insight into the lives and minds of the people living in North Korea…one of the last locked-down communist dictatorships.” • Bruce Wallace, Los Angeles Times • The film tracks a pair of gymnasts training for the 2003 Mass Games, while also documenting the lives, culture, hardships and political perspectives of North Koreans. State of Mind • Assignments: – Journal: •Impressions & Implications •Due when Journals are collected next week. – Notes: •Use in team CHOICES activity to strengthen and support your strategy/arguments.