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Chapter 39 Study Guide 1. The Allies divided Germany into four occupation zones. When the United States, Britain, and France announced plans to unite their three zones as the capitalist and democratic country of West Germany, The Soviets through the Warsaw Pact, when Easter European countries and the Soviet Union banded together for mutual security in case of a Western European Attack, imposed the Berlin Blockade cutting off the city of Berlin from the west and trying to force the Allies to relinquish all of Berlin. The Berlin Airlift led by The United states and NATO, when western European and North American countries banded together for mutual security in case of a Soviet Attack, thwarted the blockade. • 2. Worried that China would align itself with the USSR, the United States refused to recognize Mao’s new Chinese government and continued to refer to Chiang Kai-shek’s government in Taiwan as the legitimate government. The United States cut all trade ties with China and turned to Japan as its new ally in Asia. 3. Truman viewed the North Korean invasion as a test of American will to contain communism. When he turned to the United Nations for help, that international body resolved to use force, led by American General Douglas MacArthur, to create a “unified, independent and democratic Korea.” • 4. The Korean War, battle between North and South Korea at the beginning of the Cold War which tested the U. S. policy of Containment, The war ended in stalemate; Korean peninsula remained divided along the 38th parallel; Korea was left crippled by the destruction of war and millions of civilian and military casualties; more than 54,000 American soldiers were killed; North Korea grew increasingly isolated; South Korea, with ties to the United States, eventually flourished economically. • 5. The United States applied the policy of Containment to Latin America, North Africa and Asia during the Cold War through financial aid and military assistance to pro-American Third World countries, term used to describe countries that were not developed economically. Withholding aid to nations with Soviet ties covert action to influence events within a country, brinksmanship, espionage and propaganda were all used to • 6. The idea behind the policy of Brinksmanship was based on John Foster Dulles’s belief that for the United States to contain communism, the Soviets would have to believe that the United States was willing use nuclear weapons. When China assaulted the islands of Quemoy and Matsu in the 1950s as possible preparation for an invasion of Taiwan, the United States threatened a nuclear attack with an H-bomb, a more powerful and smaller atomic bomb using the element Hydrogen, and China backed down. Many saw this as a victory for brinksmanship and Mutual Assured Destruction When both sides have enough military power to prevent the other country from attacking because they will be destroyed.