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Transcript
Standard:
7. Identify on a map places related to the historic
events studied and explain their significance
10. Analyze how culture has contributed to
cooperation and conflict within and between regions
of the world
14. Demonstrate knowledge of the development of
Imperialism
24. Explain the different methods countries use to
resolve conflicts
– Diplomacy
– Treaties
– Military involvement
37. Identify the relationships the United States has
with major countries and how these affect foreign
and economic policies
America As A World Power
Imperialism
• Building an
empire by
founding
colonies or
conquering
other nations
Reasons for Imperialism
• A source of raw
materials and new
markets
• Reduced
competition
• A duty to spread
religion and culture
• Between 1870 and 1914, European
nations controlled most of Africa and
southern Asia
Two Mindsets in America
Isolationism
Expansionism
Isolationism
Avoiding involvement in the
affairs of other countries.
“steer clear of permanent alliances”
-- George Washington
Expansionism
America should press westward and
extend its national boundaries.
The United States is a “rising empire”
-- George Washington
Samoa
• The United
States,
Germany, and
Great Britain
wanted control
of Samoa
• The United
States and
Germany split
Samoa
William Seward
• 1867
– Persuaded
Congress
to annex
Midway
“Seward’s Folly”
• 1867 - Seward
bought Alaska
from Russia for
$7.2 million
– Twice the size
of Texas, for
two cents an
acre
• Many felt it
foolish to buy
such a barren
land
• Alaska was rich in timber, copper
and gold
• today it is an important source of
petroleum and natural gas.
Hawaii
• 1820’s
– the first American
missionaries arrived
• To convert Hawaiians to
Christianity
– They raised sugarcane
• 1875 – signed a treaty to allow
Hawaiian sugar to be shipped dutyfree to the U.S.
• Later American
planters arrived,
built plantations,
gained power
• Forced the
Hawaiian king to
write a new
Hawaiian
constitution
– Known as the
Bayonet
Constitution
• Granted
more power
to the
planters
Queen Liliuokalani
(lih lee oo oh kah LAH nee)
• Resented the power
of American planters
• Proposed a new
constitution
– To return power to
the monarchy
• 1893 – The planters
revolted
– The Ambassador
called for Marine
protection
– They toppled the
Queen
– Formed a new
government
• In 1898 Congress voted to annex the
Hawaiian Islands
“Our interference in the
Hawaiian Revolution in
1893 was a disgrace…
I am ashamed…”
-- Grover Cleveland
• Hawaii became
a territory in
1900, then a
state in 1959.
America and
Foreign Trade
• We traded with Europe, China, and
the Philippines.
• For hundreds of years Japan had
closed its doors
• The U.S. wanted to open trade with
Japan before Europeans arrived
Matthew Perry
• 1853 – Perry was
sent to Japan by
President Millard
Fillmore
• Japanese ordered
him to leave
Opening Trade with Japan
• In 1845 Perry
returned to
Japan with
seven warships
• The presence of U.S. power
persuaded Japanese officials to open
trade with the U.S.
Japan Becomes a World Power
• 1894 to 1895 Japan defeated China
in the Sino-Japanese War
– Gained territory, trading privileges
• 1904 - Japan attacked Russian
forces in China
• President
Theodore
Roosevelt
helped
negotiate a
peace treaty
to end the
Russo
Japanese
war
Spheres of Influence
• Areas where
foreign nations
controlled
resources
• Germany,
Great Britain,
France, Japan,
and Russia all
took control of
areas within
China
• The United
States feared
it would be
barred from
trading in
China.
Open Door Policy
• Secretary of
State John Hay
urged an “Open
Door Policy” in
China
– Any nation
could trade in
the “spheres
of influence”
of other
nations
The Boxer Rebellion
• 1900 – Some
Chinese (called
Boxers) were
opposed to
foreign influence
in China
• They attacked
foreigners in
China
• An international army
• 200 foreigners
entered China and
were killed
crushed the rebellion
A New World Power
• Some nations saw the rebellion as
an excuse to seize more land
• Hay urged China independence
• Other nations agreed
– The US gains influence in world
affairs
• Review
– Pg 696 1a-c, 2a-c,3a-c
Competition of Newspapers
Joseph Pulitzer
and
William Randolph Hearst
• In fierce competition for
readers
Yellow Journalism
Writing sensational stories, often
biased or untrue, printed to sell
newspapers
Spanish American War
• http://www.history.com/videos/r
oosevelt-fights-in-spanishamerican-war#theconfederacys-last-stand
Spain in the Caribbean
• Spain controlled Cuba
and Puerto Rico
• 1868 - the Cubans
rebelled
– They burned sugar cane fields and mills,
and moved ½ million Cubans into detention
camps
• 100,000 or more Cuban civilians died
from starvation and disease
Sinking of the Maine
• Fighting broke out
in Havana
• McKinley sent the
Maine to protect
American Citizens
• Feb. 15, 1898
– an explosion
ripped through
the ship killing
266 sailors and
officers
• The cause of the
explosion remains
a mystery
• Joseph Pulitzer’s
World
• Randolph Hearst’s
New York Journal
War Fever
Two American
magazines
compete to print
stories blaming
Spain
“Remember the
Maine” became a
rallying cry for
angry Americans
President McKinley
• Requested $50 million to prepare for
war
• Congress
approved
• April 20 –
Congress
declares Cuba
independent
– Demanded
Spain to leave
Teller Amendment
• Stated that the United States had no
interest in taking control of Cuba
• Spain
responded by
declaring war
on the United
States
On April 25, 1898 Congress declared
war on Spain
Spanish-American War
• Lasted four months
• Stretched to the
Philippine Islands
Philippines
• Attention was focused
on Cuba, but
• Filipinos were also
rebelling against
Spanish rule
• When war was declared
Commodore George
Dewey sailed to Manila,
the Spanish naval base
• At dawn he said, “You may fire when you are
ready, Gridley.”
• By noon, the Spanish fleet had been destroyed
• U.S. troops with Filipino rebels
led by Emilio Aguinaldo took
control of Manila, Capital of the
Philippines
War in the Caribbean
• The U.S. Army
landed 280,000
troops in Cuba
– Without enough
rifles or bullets
– With woolen
uniforms (in a
tropical
climate)
– 2,000 died of
deadly diseases
– 400 were killed
in battle
Theodore Roosevelt’s
“Rough Riders”
• A group of
volunteer
soldiers
(Native
Americans,
college athletes,
cowboys, miners, • Stories of their
and ranchers)
heroism reached
America
Santiago Bay
• The Spanish
Fleet was
destroyed
and Spain
surrendered
• American troops then landed on
Spanish held Puerto Rico and claimed
the island
Peace Treaty
• Cuba, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the
Philippines are under U.S. control
Anti-Imperialist League
• A group that opposed the
treaty and the creation of
an American colonial
empire
– The treaty denied self
government to the
people living in the
territories
• John Hay:
“It’s been a
splendid little
war.”
• War veteran:
“I was lucky – I
survived.”
Cuba
• U.S. allowed Cuba to write their own
constitution, but . .
• Included the Platt Amendment
– Limited Cuba’s right to make treaties
– Allowed the U.S. to intervene in Cuban
affairs
– Required Cuba to sell land to the U.S.
• Guantanamo Bay
Puerto Rico
• The U.S. made
the island a
territory
• Foraker Act of
1900
– Established a
civil government
in Puerto Ricans
• 1917 – the
Jones Act gave
Puerto Ricans
U.S. citizenship
• Another 30
years would pass
before Puerto
Ricans could
elect their own
governor
Philippines
• Spain surrendered the Philippines
for $20 million
• Filipino rebels had expected
independence
– They helped the U.S. forces to
capture Manila
• The U.S. decided to keep the
islands
Filipino War for Independence
• Filipinos fought for their
freedom, and lost
• Ruled similar to Puerto Rico, but
no citizenship
• 1946 - U.S. allowed Filipinos to
govern themselves
• Review
– Pg 702 1a&b, 2a&b
Panama Canal
• http://www.history.com/videos/g
uts--bolts-panama-canal--locks#guts--bolts-panamacanal---locks
President Theodore Roosevelt
• Determined
to build a
canal
through the
Isthmus of
Panama
Building the Panama Canal
• Between the
Pacific Ocean and
the Caribbean
Sea
• A trip from west
to east would be
8,000 shorter
• Would link naval
fleets
Revolution in Panama
• The Isthmus of Panama was part of
Columbia
• Columbia wouldn’t lease
• Panama revolted against Columbia and won
– Became an independent country
• Roosevelt sent Hay to negotiate
with Panama and offer
– $10
million in
cash,
plus
– $250,000
a year
rent
Challenges in Building the Canal
Challenges
Solutions
• Swamps
– Drain swamps
– Tropical diseases
– Spray insecticide
carried by
and spread oil to
mosquitoes
kill mosquitoes
• Malaria
• Yellow fever
• Tropical heat
• Heavy rainfall
More Challenges
• 4,000 workers
– Blasted through
mountains
• Widened the
river and
created the
largest
artificial lake
in the world
– Built up gigantic
locks to raise and
lower ships
How a Canal Lock Works
• http://gcaptain.com/miraflores-lock-panama-canaltimelapse-video/?2369
• http://www.haworth-village.org.uk/nature/how/canallock.asp
Opening the Canal
• The Panama Canal was finally
opened to ships on August 15,
1914; it linked the Atlantic and
Pacific oceans.
Benefits and Drawbacks
• Ship goods cheaply to South
America and Asia
But . . .
• Latin American nations were
bitter about how the U.S. gained
control of the canal
Big Stick Diplomacy
“Speak softly
and carry a
big stick;
you will go
far.”
-- Theodore
Roosevelt
• Meaning U.S. military force – to protect
U.S. interests in Latin America
Europe and Latin America
• European banks
made loans to Latin
American countries
• Some refused to
pay the debt
• Roosevelt wanted them to pay their debts,
but
– Did not want Europeans to intervene in
Latin America
– It would violate the Monroe Doctrine
• Threaten U.S. power in the area
Roosevelt Corollary
• An addition to the
Monroe Doctrine
• Warned that in
cases of
“wrongdoing” by
Latin American
countries, the
United States might
exercise
“international police
power.”
Dollar Diplomacy
• Influencing governments through
economic, not military, intervention
• President William
Howard Taft
– “substitute dollars
for bullets.”
– Urged bankers to
invest in Latin
America
Moral Diplomacy
• Woodrow Wilson
• The U.S. has a
moral obligation
to promote
democracy in
Latin America
Mexico
• America had
invested $1 billion
to develop mines,
oil wells, railroads,
and ranches
• Most Mexicans were
poor, which led to
discontent
Mexican Revolution
• 1910 - Mexicans revolted
against the harsh rule of
dictator Porfirio Dias
• 1914 - Wilson learned of a
German ship bringing
weapons to Mexico
• Wilson ordered the navy to seize
Veracruz
Francisco “Pancho” Villa
• Mexican rebel
leader
• Took 17
Americans off a
train and shot
them
• Raided the town
of Columbus, New
Mexico, and killed
18 Americans
General John J. Pershing
• 1916 – Sent to Mexico
with an army of
thousands to capture
Pancho Villa
• Pershing failed
• Wilson recalled the
troops
America’s New
World Role
• Kept troops and
ships in Latin
America and
Asia
• Had business
interests around
the world
• Could no longer
ignore the war in
Europe that had
raged since 1914
• Review
– Pg 709 1a-c, 2a&b,3a&b
• Next up …
• Evaluation
– Ch 22 test