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An Emerging World Power Chapter 11 Vocabulary 1890-1917 Imperialism •The economic and political domination of a strong nation over other weaker nations. •Part II and III on your own. Alfred T. Mahan • An officer in the US Navy who taught at the Naval War college. • Expressed the argument that in order to compete internationally, the US must build up its navy and acquire overseas bases. • The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783. Yellow Journalism •Sensationalist reporting, in which writers often exaggerated or even made up stories to attract readers. •Part II and III on your own. USS Maine •US battleship sent to Havana harbor in case Americans needed to evacuate Cuba. •The Maine exploded in the Harbor, leading Americans to believe Spain had sunk it. •Creates pressure for McKinley to go to war with Spain. Spanish American War •War fought between the United States and Spain over the fate of Cuba. •When the US defeated Spain, they acquired new overseas territories, becoming an imperial power. Rough Riders/ Theodore Roosevelt • Volunteer Calvary unit that assisted in the capture of San Juan Hill in the Spanish American War. • TR was second in command of these troops…he had resigned his post as assistant secretary of the navy to fight. • Accompanying the Rough Riders in their attack were the all-black 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments. Teller Amendment •Passed by Congress as part of the Spanish American war declaration. •Prevented the US from taking possession of Cuba, but did not apply to the Philippines. Platt Amendment •Amendment to the Cuban constitution that essentially gave the U.S. power over the government of Cuba. •The Platt Amendment goverened relations between the US and Cuba until 1934. •In effect, it made Cuba an American protectorate. Protectorate •A relationship of protection and partial control (but not by possession) of a weaker country by a stronger country. •Usually determined by treaty. Open Door Policy •Policy supported by President McKinley and Secretary of State John Hay. •Stated that all countries should be allowed to trade with China. Boxer Rebellion • A rebellion in 1900 in which members of a secret Chinese society (the Boxers) rose up to wipe out the “foreign devils” and their Christian converts, whom they believed were corrupting Chinese society. • During the rebellion, foreign embassies in Beijing were attacked killing more than 200 foreigners and taking more prisoner. • Eventually, an international force that included US Troops stepped in and quelled the rebellion. Panama Canal • Roosevelt and others viewed the construction of a canal through Central America as vital to American power in the world. • A canal would save both time and $$ for commercial and military shipping. • In 1903, after a US supported Panamanian revolt, the US acquired the Panama Canal Zone. Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine • Roosevelt announced in 1904 that in order to prevent European nations from sending troops to the Caribbean or Central America, the US would intervene in Latin American affairs when necessary to maintain stability in the Western Hemisphere. • Part II and III on your own Big Stick Diplomacy/ Roosevelt • Roosevelt’s foreign policy plans for Latin America. • Basically, TR believed that the US had the right to use its military to become a international police power over the Western Hemisphere. • Relied on a strong military. “Speak softly and carry a big stick…” Dollar Diplomacy/ Taft • “substituting dollars for bullets.” • Based on the idea that if American business leaders supported Latin American development, everyone would benefit. • American businesses would increase profits, Latin America would rise out of poverty and disorder and European nations would have no reason to intervene in the region. Missionary/Moral Diplomacy Wilson • Wilson promised that the United States would “never again seek one additional foot of territory by conquest” but would instead work to promote “human rights, national integrity, and opportunity.” • Wanted to create “friendships” with Latin American countries. • Still used the military on a number of occasions.