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Chapter 14
The Respiratory System
Week 4
Hs 130
Agenda




Questions from Last Week
Review Chapter 14
Question and Answer Session
Answer any Questions.
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Slide 2
STRUCTURAL PLAN


Basic plan of respiratory system would be
similar to an inverted tree if it were hollow;
leaves of the tree would be comparable to
alveoli, with the microscopic sacs enclosed
by networks of capillaries (Figure 14-1)
Passive transport process of diffusion is
responsible for the exchange of gases that
occur during respiration.
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Slide 3
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Slide 4
RESPIRATORY TRACTS

What comprises the:

Upper respiratory tract—

Lower respiratory tract—
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Slide 5
Answer-RESPIRATORY TRACTS


Upper respiratory tract—nose, pharynx,
and larynx
Lower respiratory tract—trachea, bronchial
tree, and lungs
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Slide 6
RESPIRATORY MUCOSA




Specialized membrane that lines the air
distribution tubes in the respiratory tree (Figure
14-2)
More than 125 mL of mucus produced each day
forms a “mucous blanket” over much of the
respiratory mucosa
Mucus serves as an air purification mechanism by
trapping inspired irritants such as dust and pollen
Cilia on mucosal cells beat in only one direction,
moving mucus upward to pharynx for removal
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Slide 7
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Slide 8
NOSE

Structure




Nasal septum separates interior of nose into
two cavities
Mucous membrane lines nose
Frontal, maxillary, sphenoidal, and ethmoidal
sinuses drain into nose (Figure 14-3)
Functions-What are the Functions?


Warms and moistens inhaled air
Contains sense organs of smell
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Slide 9
Answer-Nose Functions


Warms and moistens inhaled air
Contains sense organs of smell
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Slide 10
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Slide 11
PHARYNX

Structure (Figure 14-4)


Pharynx (throat) about 12.5 cm (5 inches) long
Divided into nasopharynx, oropharynx, and
laryngopharynx
 Two nasal cavities, mouth, esophagus, larynx,
and auditory tubes all have openings into
pharynx
 Pharyngeal tonsils and openings of auditory
tubes open into nasopharynx; tonsils found in
oropharynx
 Mucous membrane lines pharynx

Functions-What is the function of the
Pharynx?
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Slide 12
Answer-PHARYNX

Functions


Passageway for food and liquids
Air distribution; passageway for air
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Slide 13
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Slide 14
LARYNX

Structure (Figure 14-5)




Several pieces of cartilage form framework
• Thyroid cartilage (Adam’s apple) is largest
• Epiglottis partially covers opening into larynx
Mucous lining
Vocal cords stretch across interior of larynx
Functions-What is the function?
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Slide 15
Function--LARYNX

Functions

Air distribution; passageway for air to move to
and from lungs
 Voice production
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Slide 16
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Slide 17
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Slide 18
TRACHEA

Structure (Figure 14-6)





Tube about 11 cm (4.5 inches) long that
extends from larynx into the thoracic cavity
Mucous lining
C-shaped rings of cartilage hold trachea open
Function—What is the function?
Obstruction


Blockage of trachea occludes the airway, and if
blockage is complete, causes death in minutes
Tracheal obstruction causes more than 4000
deaths annually in the United States
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Slide 19
Answer--TRACHEA

Function—passageway for air to move to
and from lungs
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Slide 20
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Slide 21
BRONCHI, BRONCHIOLES, AND
ALVEOLI

Structure




Trachea branches into right and left bronchi
Each bronchus branches into smaller and
smaller tubes eventually leading to bronchioles
Bronchioles end in clusters of microscopic
alveolar sacs, the walls of which are made up
of alveoli (Figure 14-7)
Function-What is the function?
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Slide 22
BRONCHI, BRONCHIOLES, AND
ALVEOLI

Function


Bronchi and bronchioles—air distribution;
passageway for air to move to and from alveoli
Alveoli—exchange of gases between air and
blood (Figure 14-8)
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Slide 23
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Slide 24
LUNGS AND PLEURA

Structure (Figure 14-9)





Size—large enough to fill the chest cavity, except for
middle space occupied by heart and large blood vessels
Apex—narrow upper part of each lung, under collarbone
Base—broad lower part of each lung; rests on
diaphragm
Pleura—moist, smooth, slippery membrane that lines
chest cavity and covers outer surface of lungs; reduces
friction between the lungs and chest wall during
breathing (Figure 14-10)
Function—breathing (pulmonary ventilation)
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Slide 25
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Slide 26
RESPIRATION

Mechanics of breathing (Figure 14-11)

Pulmonary ventilation includes two phases
called:

Changes in size and shape of thorax causes
what?

Air pressure differences actually cause air to
move into and out of the lungs
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Slide 27
Answer--RESPIRATION

Mechanics of breathing (Figure 14-11)

Pulmonary ventilation includes two phases
called inspiration (movement of air into lungs)
and expiration (movement of air out of lungs)

Changes in size and shape of thorax cause
changes in air pressure within that cavity and
in the lungs
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Slide 28
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Slide 29
RESPIRATION

Inspiration


Active process—Define?
Inspiratory muscles include: _______and
_____________.
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Slide 30
Answer-RESPIRATION

Inspiration


Active process—air moves into lungs
Inspiratory muscles include diaphragm and
external intercostals
• Diaphragm flattens during inspiration—increases topto-bottom length of thorax
• External intercostals contraction elevates the ribs—
increases the size of the thorax from the front to the
back and from side to side

Increase in the size of the chest cavity reduces
pressure within it; air then enters the lungs
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Slide 31
RESPIRATION

Expiration




Quiet expiration is ordinarily a passive process
During expiration, thorax returns to its resting size and
shape
Elastic recoil of lung tissues aids in expiration
Expiratory muscles used in forceful expiration are:
____________ and _____________
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Slide 32
Answer-RESPIRATION

Expiration




Quiet expiration is ordinarily a passive process
During expiration, thorax returns to its resting size and
shape
Elastic recoil of lung tissues aids in expiration
Expiratory muscles used in forceful expiration are
internal intercostals and abdominal muscles
• Internal intercostals—contraction depresses the rib cage
and decreases the size of the thorax from the front to back
• Contraction of abdominal muscles elevates the diaphragm,
thus decreasing size of the thoracic cavity from the top to
bottom

Reduction in the size of the thoracic cavity increases its
pressure and air leaves the lungs
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Slide 33
RESPIRATION

Exchange of gases in lungs (Figure 14-12)





Carbaminohemoglobin breaks down into carbon dioxide and
hemoglobin
Carbon dioxide moves out of lung capillary blood into alveolar
air and out of body in expired air
Oxygen moves from alveoli into lung capillaries
Hemoglobin combines with oxygen, producing oxyhemoglobin
Exchange of gases in tissues

Oxyhemoglobin breaks down into: __________and ________.
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Slide 34
RESPIRATION

Exchange of gases in lungs (Figure 14-12)





Carbaminohemoglobin breaks down into carbon dioxide and
hemoglobin
Carbon dioxide moves out of lung capillary blood into alveolar
air and out of body in expired air
Oxygen moves from alveoli into lung capillaries
Hemoglobin combines with oxygen, producing oxyhemoglobin
Exchange of gases in tissues

Oxyhemoglobin breaks down into oxygen and hemoglobin
 Oxygen moves out of tissue capillary blood into tissue cells
 Carbon dioxide moves from tissue cells into tissue capillary
blood
 Hemoglobin combines with carbon dioxide, forming
carbaminohemoglobin
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Slide 35
BLOOD TRANSPORTATION OF GASES


Transport of oxygen
Transport of carbon dioxide








Volumes of air exchanged in pulmonary ventilation (Figure 14-13)
Volumes of air exchanged in breathing can be measured with a
spirometer
Tidal volume (TV)—amount normally breathed in or out with each
breath
Vital capacity (VC)—greatest amount of air that one can breathe out in
one expiration
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)—amount of air that can be forcibly
exhaled after expiring the tidal volume
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)—amount of air that can be forcibly
inhaled after a normal inspiration
Residual volume (RV)—air that remains in the lungs after the most
forceful expiration
Rate—usually about 12 to 18 breaths a minute; much faster during
exercise
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Slide 36
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Slide 37
REGULATION OF RESPIRATION
(Figure 14-14)

Regulation of respiration permits the body to adjust to varying
demands for oxygen supply and carbon dioxide removal

Most important central regulatory centers in medulla are called
respiratory control centers (inspiratory and expiratory centers)
 Under resting conditions, nervous activity in the respiratory control
centers produces a normal rate and depth of respirations (12 to 18 per
minute)

Respiratory control centers in the medulla are influenced by
“inputs” from receptors located in other body areas:

Cerebral cortex—voluntary (but limited) control of respiratory activity
 Receptors that influence respiration
• Chemoreceptors respond to changes in carbon dioxide, oxygen, and blood
acid levels—located in carotid and aortic bodies
• Pulmonary stretch receptors—respond to the stretch in lungs, thus
protecting respiratory organs from overinflation
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Slide 38
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Slide 39
TYPES OF BREATHING






Eupnea—
Hyperventilation—
Hypoventilation—
Dyspnea—
Apnea—
Respiratory arrest—
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Slide 40
TYPES OF BREATHING
Describe the following:






Eupnea—normal breathing
Hyperventilation—rapid and deep
respirations
Hypoventilation—slow and shallow
respirations
Dyspnea—labored or difficult respirations
Apnea—stopped respiration
Respiratory arrest—failure to resume
breathing after a period of apnea
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Slide 41
Question and answers





1. The upper respiratory tract includes all of
the following except the:
a. nose
b. trachea
c. pharynx
d. larynx
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Slide 42

ANS:
B-Trachea
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Slide 43





The mucous blanket:
a. only covers the nose and throat
b. traps dust, pollen, and other contaminants
c.only covers the alveoli and bronchioles
d. both B and C above
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Slide 44

ANS:

B
traps dust, pollen, and other contaminants
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Slide 45





All of the following are paranasal sinuses
except the:
a. frontal sinus
b. maxillary sinus
c. sphenoid sinus
d. mandibular sinus
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Slide 46

ANS:

D
mandibular sinus
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Slide 47





The function of the epiglottis is to:
a. anchor the vocal cords
b. change the pitch of the voice
c. keep food from entering the trachea
d. both A and B above
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Slide 48

ANS:

C
keep food from entering the trachea
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Slide 49





The smallest of the air distribution tubes in
the respiratory tract are the:
a. secondary bronchi
b. bronchioles
c. alveolar ducts
d. tracheae
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Slide 50

ANS:

C
alveolar ducts
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Slide 51





Dyspnea is labored breathing that is often
associated with:
a. hypoventilation
b. hyperventilation
c. eupnea
d. apnea
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Slide 52

ANS:

A
hypoventilation
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Slide 53





Which term refers to a normal respiratory
rate?
a. dyspnea
b. apnea
c. eupnea
d. hyperventilation
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Slide 54

ANS:

C
eupnea
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Slide 55
True/Fals

The organs of the respiratory system are
designed to perform two basic functions: air
distribution and gas exchange.
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Slide 56

True
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Slide 57

The respiratory membrane lines most of the
air distribution tubes in the respiratory
system.
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Slide 58

False
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Slide 59

The nicotine in cigarette smoke stimulates the
cilia to beat rapidly in both directions,
stopping the efficient removal of the trapped
debris.
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Slide 60

False
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Slide 61

The four paranasal sinuses are named for the
bones in which they are found. They are the
frontal, parietal, sphenoidal, and ethmoidal.
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Slide 62

ANS:
F
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Slide 63

The tonsils are located in the pharynx.
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Slide 64

True
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Slide 65

In some lung diseases, the lungs lose their
elasticity and their ability to recoil. This would
have the greatest impact expiration.
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Slide 66

True
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Slide 67

In order for external respiration to take place,
the alveoli must have a higher oxygen
concentration and a lower carbon dioxide
concentration than the blood in the lung
capillaries.

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Slide 68

True
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Slide 69

The cerebral cortex is responsible for the
voluntary increase or decrease in breathing
rate.
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Slide 70

True
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Slide 71
Any Questions
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Slide 72