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WHAT IS THERAPY? Section 1 TYPES OF THERAPY Insight therapies involve complex conversations between therapists and clients. The aim is to help clients understand the nature of their problems and the meaning of their behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. Insight therapists may use a variety of approaches, including psychodynamic, cognitive, or humanistic. Behavior therapies also involve conversations between therapists and clients but attempt to directly influence maladaptive behaviors. Behavior therapies are based on learning principles. Biomedical therapies involve efforts to directly alter biological functioning through medication, electric shock, or surgery. THE GOALS OF PYSCHOTHERAPY treatment of psychological problems through confidential verbal communications with a mental health professional. All psychotherapies offer hope that a problem will improve, present new perspectives on the problem, and encourage an empathic relationship with a therapist. TYPES OF MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS CLINAL/COUNSELING have a doctoral degree as well as specialized training for diagnosing and treating psychological disorders and problems of daily living. PYSCHIASTRSITS physicians. have a medical degree and specialize in diagnosing and treating psychological disorders. Psychiatrists tend to focus on biomedical therapies, although they sometimes also provide psychotherapy. TYPES OF MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS (CONTINUED) PYSCHIATRIC SOCIAL WORKERS & NURSES provide psychotherapy, often in institutional settings, such as hospitals and social service organizations. They sometimes practice independently as well. COUNSELORS psychotherapy services usually work in schools, colleges, and social service organizations. ADVANTAGES OF GROUP THERAPY Group therapies are cost-effective for clients and time saving for therapists. discuss their problems and experiences with one another and consider different ways of coping. They provide each other with acceptance, support, and honest feedback. A therapy group is a place where people can practice coping strategies and ways of relating to others. Therapy groups also help people to realize they are not alone in their suffering. OTHER TYPES OF GROUP THERAPY Self help Family encounter Psychoanalytic treatment focuses on uncovering unconscious motives, conflicts, and defenses that relate to childhood experiences. PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH Section 2 CLASSIC TECHNIQUES OF PSYCHOANALYSIS FREE ASSOCIATION DREAM ANALYSIS encourage clients to describe their dreams say anything that in detail, and the comes to mind. psychoanalyst Clients are expected interprets the latent to put all thoughts content, or the hidden into words, meaning, of these (incoherent, dreams. inappropriate, rude, or seemingly TRANSFERENCE irrelevant.) process by which clients relate to their psychoanalysts as they would to important figures in their past. The focus of the humanistic perspective is on the self. This view argues that you are free to choose your own behavior, rather than reacting to environmental stimuli and reinforces. The major focus is to facilitate personal development. HUMANISTIC APPROACH Section 3 CLIENT-CENTERED THERAPY THERAPISTS-CLIENT RELATIONSHIP Non-directive client determines the general direction of therapy, while the therapist seeks to increase the client's insight and selfunderstanding through informal clarifying questions. THE GOAL Better selfunderstanding; lower levels of defensiveness, guilt, and insecurity; more positive and comfortable relationships with others; higher selfesteem and greater openness to experience TECHNIQUES OF CLIENT CENTERED THERAPY ACTIVE LISTENING Listen Repeat Rephrase Clarify UNCONDITIONAL POSTIVE REGARD accepts the client totally for who he or she is without evaluating or censoring, and without disapproving of particular feelings, actions, or characteristics. aims to identify and change maladaptive thinking patterns that can result in negative emotions and dysfunctional behavior COGNITIVE THERAPY SECTION 3 RATIONAL-EMOTIVE Emotional problems result from faulty assumptions about the situations. Identify, challenge, think realistically. BECK’S COGNITIVE Restructuring thinking by identifying the illogical thought processes that led to the conclusion. Arbitrary inference Selective abstraction overgeneralization Behavior therapies are based on two assumptions: •Behavior is learned. •Behavior can be changed by applying the principles of classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning. BEHAVIOR THERAPY SECTION 3 THE ROOTS OF BEHAVIOR THERAPY Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning COUNTERCONDITIONING Systematic desensitization Exposure therapy flooding OPERANT Token economies Aversive conditioning a stimulus that evokes an unpleasant response is paired with a stimulus that evokes a maladaptive behavior. Tokens for desirable behaviors Successive Approximations Gradual changes in behavior until target behavior is reached. Medication, electric shock, and even surgery to help people with psychological disorders BIOLOGICAL THERAPY Section 5 PSYCHOPHARMACOTHERAPY ANTI-ANXIETY tranquilizers. Two commonly used are known by the brand names Valium and Xanax. How does it work? Side effects? ANTI-DEPRESSANT typically prescribed for depression, anxiety, phobias and obsessive-compulsive disorder. PSYCHOPHARMACOTHERAPY LITHIUM Lithium prevents mood swings in people with bipolar disorders Can cause tremors or long-term kidney damage. Blood levels must be carefully monitored. too low is ineffective, too high can be toxic. ANTI-PYSCHOTIC Major tranquilizers Agitation, delusions, hallucinations Schizophrenia Effects of prolonged usage? ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY mainly for the treatment of severe depression. Electrodes are placed on the patient’s head, over the temporal lobes of the brain. Anesthetics and muscle relaxants help minimize discomfort to the patient. Then an electric current is delivered for about one second. The patient has a convulsive seizure and becomes unconscious, awakening after about an hour. short-term side effects of ECT, attention deficits and memory loss. PYSCHOSURGERY best-known form = prefrontal lobotomy. Surgeons performed lobotomies in the 1940s and 1950s to treat highly emotional and violent behavior. The surgery often resulted in severe deficits, including apathy, lethargy, and social withdrawal. Rosemary Kennedy CRITICISMS OF DRUG THERAPY superficial effects ; last only as long as the drug is being administered. Side effects can often be more severe and troubling than the disorder for which the drug was given. This can cause patients to discontinue the drugs and experience relapses. pressure from managed care companies, physicians may overprescribe drugs rather than recommend psychotherapy.