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The Aztecs are Conquered
 Hernando
Cortes had arrived in Mexico from
 He
had begun establishing colonies on the
islands of the Caribbean Sea
 Because
of stories of great wealth and riches,
Cortes was encouraged to gain some of the
Aztecs’ land and wealth
Disadvantages vs.
 Cortes
was one group of Spanish soldiers who
became known as conquistadors
 His
challenge: His army was greatly
outnumbered (only about 500 men)
 Cortes
had metal armor to protect his men
against the Aztec stone weapons
 They
also had muskets and horses
 Cortes
had made allies who were willing
to fight with the Spanish, many of these
people did not want to live under Aztec
 Dona
Marina was an Aztec woman who
had become a Christian. She was willing
to help Cortes fight
 She
helped communicate to the native
people of Mexico
Allies unknown
 The
Spanish did not realize it at the time, but
they carried a germ that spread smallpox
 Some
say thousands of Aztecs caught Smallpox
after Cortes arrived
 When
Cortes returned late in 1520 with many
more allies, the mighty empire of the Aztecs fell
Founding New Spain
 After
the conquest of the Aztecs, the Spanish
destroyed Tenochtitlan.
 Smallpox
once again helped the Spanish by
spreading disease throughout Mexico
 Spain
established the colony of New Spain
with a capital of Mexico City
Making New
Spain home
 Spanish
officials came to set up a government,
make laws, and build schools and universities.
 Roman
Catholic priests came to convert the
native people to Christianity
 Spanish
leaders discouraged natives from
continuing to sacrifice people to their gods
 Colonists
also came to New Spain to live
Conquests Continue
 The
Inca Empire lay to the South, which controlled a
huge portion of the land in western South America
 Ten
years after the Spanish began their conquest,
they sent Francisco Pizarro to conquer the Incas
 By
1532, Pizarro captured Cuzco, the capital city of
the Empire. By 1535 a new capital was formed
new culture was born – part Spanish, part Indian
Search for Gold
 Hernando
de Soto led expeditions to search
for gold and other riches in the Americas
 One
story told was about the kingdom of
 The
legend told by Esteban (once enslaved)
about Cibola did not fade
 Many
could not find this city, some feel it is
because it did not exist
Explorer Map
 Label
the Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic ocean
and the Pacific Ocean
 Color land and water
 Label and trace routes of 4 different
 Create a map key
Society in
New Spain
new way of life had formed in New Spain as
more and more colonists came to live
 At
the top of society were the peninsulares,
which were people born in Spain
 Next,
came creoles – people who have a
Spanish background but were born in America
 Mestizos
followed and were the largest group
(mixed Indian and Spanish background
 They
were wealthy and powerful
 They
owned plantations or large farms with
many workers
 Other
peninsulares received grants called
encomienda which granted control of all
natives who lived on an area of land
In cities
 Colonists
became merchants and
 They
would work for the colonial
 Some
had small businesses where they
made furniture or clothing
More Changes for
 Many
encomienda owners put the natives to
work as farmers, miners, and servants
 Some
were forced to work and did not even
have enough to eat
 One
type of encomineda was run by Catholic
missionaries who would try to teach the ways
of their religion. Sometimes they even taught
European farming practices
Speaking Out
priest named Bartolome de Las Casas spoke
out against the mistreatment of native people
 His
efforts had some success because he
persuaded Spain to pass laws in 1542 saying
the natives must be paid for their work
 However,
these laws were not really enforced