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The Age of
EQ- Who were the
influential explorers of
Later Portuguese
Portugal’s main interest was Africa and Asia,
and trade rather than colonization.
 Led by Pedro Alvares Cabral , the
Portuguese defeated a large Arab fleet to take
control of the Indian Ocean.
Pedro Alvares Cabral
Later Portuguese
They expanded trade east. Ports were set up with China
and Japan.
Pedro Cabral also set up colonies in Brazil in
1500. Sugarcane, tobacco, coffee, and cotton
were grown there.
Because of this slaves had to be brought in.
Later Spanish
A Conquistador means
conqueror. Most conquistadors
were after Gold, God and Glory.
Hernando Cortes landed in
Mexico in 1519. He had 600
men and 16 horses and
cannons with him.
“We Spaniards know a sickness
of the heart that only gold can
Hernando Cortez
The Aztec
Montezuma II, ruler of Aztecs, was convinced Cortes
was a god wearing armor. Agrees to give him share of
empire’s gold. Cortes was not satisfied.
He had allied with local enemies of the Aztec who took
him to Tenochititlan.
Within 3 years, thousands of Aztec had been
slaughtered and Cortes ruled.
3 reasons Spain defeats Aztecs:
1. Better weapons
2. The help of other
natives. they were
tired of the Aztecs,
and their human
3. Disease
Francisco Pizarro
In 1537, Francisco
Pizarro invaded the
Inca Empire in Peru.
The Spanish had 200
against 30,000.
Thousands of Incans were
A ransom was paid for
leader, Atahualpa. The
Spanish took the ransom,
and killed him anyway.
Building of an Empire
Spain had 2 goals, wealth and Christianity. (Plantations
and mines and Missionaries)
In 1515, they started St. Augustine, the first colony in the New
The Spanish enslaved the natives, and forced them to
work. This system became known as the encomienda
system. Thousands of Mestizos were also born. These are
Spanish native mixes.
Some natives were converted to Christianity. Millions would die
within the first 50 years due to disease.
A few priests like Bartolomew de la Casas,
tried to help the natives by getting laws passed
to end abuse. These laws were never enforced
until 1542, when the encomienda system ended.
Africans were brought over to work.
In 1602, the Dutch set up the East India
Company. It was to keep good relation with the
empires in Asia. By 1619, is in present day
 By 1641, they had pushed the Portuguese
and the English out of Asia as serious
traders. (They controlled trade.)
In 1621, an English navigator, Henry Hudson, set out
to claim land for the Dutch along the North American
coast of the Atlantic.
He founded New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island.
The West India Company was set up. It was to establish
colonies in the Americas.
The Dutch also set up a port on the Cape of Good Hope. It
provided fresh food and water for ships.
Dutch profit from fur trade, but fail to attract settlers
In 1524, the French
hired Giovanni da
Verrazano to try to
find the North
West Passage
through America to
 He had no success.
Jacques Cartier
In 1534, Jacques Cartier
looked for the Northwest
He sailed up the St.
Lawrence River where he
named a mountain Mount
Real. (Mount Royal) This
would later be Montreal.
claims most of eastern
Samuel de Champlain
 In
1608, Samuel
de Champlain
Quebec. (First
Jacques Marquette and
Louis Joliet
In 1673, Jacques
Marquette and
Louis Joliet, 2
Jesuit missionaries
explored the
Mississippi River
Robert Cavalier
Later, Robert
Cavalier claimed the
entire inland region
surrounding the
Mississippi River for
The French set up
missionaries and
traded (Fur) with the
In 1497, John Cabot explored the coast of present day
Sir Francis Drake, raided Spanish ships for gold and
In 1600, the English East India Company was established. It set up
ports in India and Southeast Asia.
In 1607, Jamestown was founded. (Earliest English
colony.) They also had Sugarcane plantations in Jamaica.
The Pilgrims signed the Mayflower Compact and settled
Plymouth in 1620. Puritans come 10 years later.
A series of colonies was getting set up that would move westward and
eventually collide with the French and Dutch.
James Cook claimed New Zealand and Australia for
England in 1770.
England established Australia into a penal colony.
John Cabot and Sir Francis
Edward B. Teach