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Transcript
The Civil War
1861 – 1865
South
North
How did it come to this?
A War to Restore the Union?
Northern
Strengths/Weaknesses

Strong industry.






Northern factories produced more than 90% of the
nation’s manufactured goods.
70% of the nation’s rail lines.
Strong navy.
Almost 4 times as many free citizens as the
South.
Invading unfamiliar land.
Supply lines were much longer and thus more
open to attack.
Southern Strengths/Weaknesses







Fighting a defensive war.
A war for independence.
Strong reason to fight.
Southern soldiers were familiar with the terrain.
Economic weakness.
Few factories for producing weapons.
Political problems.


States’ rights vs. Federal government
Small population in the South.

9 million citizens; 1/3 of the population is African
American.
Antietam –
September 17,
1862






The bloodiest one day battle in American history.
Ended the Confederate army’s first invasion into
the North.
General George McClellan – Union
General Robert E. Lee – Confederate
Over 23,000 casualties.
Opportunity for President Lincoln to issue the
emancipation proclamation.
Emancipation
Proclamation




President Lincoln issued the
preliminary in September,
1862, following the Union
victory at Antietam. January
1, 1863, is the date of the
official issuance.
Freed most slaves in states
not under Union control.
Allowed black soldiers to
fight for the Union armies.
Made the war about slavery.
Fredericksburg –
December, 1862




At the Rappahannock River in Virginia.
General Ambrose E. Burnside, commanding the
Union Army of the Potomac, planned to take the
Confederate capital of Richmond.
General Robert E. Lee, in command of the
Confederate forces, created a blockade in the town
of Fredericksburg.
A significant loss for the Union army. Confederates
lost 5,300 men; Union lost 12,600.
Vicksburg – Spring 1863




General Ulysses S. Grant – Union
Lieutenant General John Pemberton – CS
One of the most brilliant military campaigns
of the war.
Grant gained control of the Mississippi
River, cutting the Confederacy in half.
Gettysburg – July 1, 2, 3, 1863





General George Meade – Union
General Robert E. Lee – Confederate
Union forces prevailed after 3 days of
fighting.
Lee’s second campaign to the North had
failed.
Casualties


23,000 US
28,000 CS
“Total War”



Eliminate the support of the civilians,
and the Confederate soldiers will run out
of resources.
An effort to cripple the local economy.
Waging war on the population of the
region; not just the soldiers fighting for
that region.
Sherman’s March to the Sea



Began in Atlanta in 1864.
General Sherman and his troops burned
towns, pillaged property, and destroyed
railroads across the south.
Sherman’s men covered 450 miles in50 days.
Appomattox Courthouse




Final engagement of the war in Virginia.
General Ulysses S. Grant – US
General Robert E. Lee – CS
Lee surrendered to Grant on April 9, 1865.