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The Outset of War
Chapter 21
Mr. Walters
The Civil War
•War would destroy 1 America and build
•Almost as many died in this war as all wars
combined before and since.
•It is America’s bloodiest war.
•First war of the Industrial Revolution---new
weapons would cause massive destruction
against outdated military tactics.
Slavery was to blame
Agricultural vs. industrial societies
Sectionalism is natural
War was good
State’s rights vs. National Government
Preserve the Union and democracy
When the Confederate States of
America was formed, its founders
wrote a constitution similar to the
United States Constitution. Its
differences, however, indicate how
the South Wanted to change their
structure of government.
•State’s rights
•Tariffs are equal throughout the
•Slavery is legal and is allowed to
Cartoon: North thought of secession
Alexander H. Stephens (1812-1883), destined the next
year to become vice president of the new Confederacy,
wrote privately in 1860 of the Southern Democrats who
seceded from the Charleston convention:
“The seceders intended from the beginning to
rule or ruin; and when they find they cannot
rule, they will then ruin. They have about
enough power for this purpose; not much
more; and I doubt not but they will use it.
Envy, hate, jealousy, spite…..will make devils of
men. The secession movement was instigated
by nothing but bad passions.”
Lincoln wrote to the antislavery editor
Horace Greeley in August 1862, even as he
was about to announce the Emancipation
“If I could save the Union without
freeing any slave, I would do it; and
if I could save it by freeing all the
slaves, I would do it; and if I could
do it by freeing some and leaving
others alone, I would also do that.”
"I tried all in my power to avert this war. I saw it
coming, for twelve years I worked night and
day to prevent it, but I could not. The North
was mad and blind; it would not let us govern
ourselves, and so the war came, and now it
must go on till the last man of
this generation falls in his tracks, and his children
seize the musket and fight our battle, unless you
acknowledge our right to self government. We
are not fighting for slavery. We are fighting for
Independence, and that, or extermination".........
Jefferson Davis On the War
Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865),
Kentucky born like Jefferson
Davis, was aware of Kentucky’s
crucial importance. In September
1861 he remarked,
“I think to lose Kentucky is nearly the
same as to lose the whole game.
Kentucky gone, we cannot hold
Missouri, not, I think, Maryland.
These all against us, and the job on
our hands in too large for us. We
would as well consent to separation
at once, including the surrender of
this capital, Washington, D.C.
Fort Sumter 2
North v. South at the Beginning
22 states
 23,000,000 population
 Industrial economy
 Majority of transportation
 Lincoln, a military novice.
11 states
Agricultural economy
Asks Robert E. Lee to
command Union troops and
Limited manufacturing and
railroad lines.
Davis, military experience.
Belief war is about
slavery and preserving
the Union.
– includes 4 million slaves
– Exports, not food
Better military leaders
Belief war is about states
rights, independence
and preserving their
war of life.
“The North’s major advantage would be its
economy and the South’s main disadvantage
was its economy”
Rating the North & the South
Railroad Lines, 1860
Resources: North & the South
Men Present for Duty
in the Civil War
Suspended “civil liberties” or
parts of the Constitution
– writ of habeas corpus: Protects from
unfair arrest and trial by jury.
– Occupation of Baltimore: Controlled by
military---- “martial law”
– Arrested over 15,000 civilians: Without
“probable cause”---suspicious “Rebel”
– Closed “rebel” newspapers: Violated 1st
amendment rights of “free speech and
First Income Tax
 Greenbacks
– 1st paper money