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EQ: How did conflict between the North
and the South create change?
Election of 1860:
Main Candidates
John Bell
* Lincoln won the election.
Southerners vs. Lincoln
•They feared there would be no new slave states.
• Lincoln promised to leave slavery alone, but they didn’t believe him.
• They thought their power in the House would decline
as free states joined
•They wanted the right to declare any national law
• Northern states still wanted the national government’s
power to be supreme over the states
• In response to Lincoln’s victory, the southern
states seceded from the Union in 1860, forming the
Confederate States of America.
Original Confederate flag
Eventual Confederate flag
Order of Secession
South Carolina
Americans across the
nation asked: Did
Southern states have
the right to secede?
Southern leaders
argued yes, because
the states had united by
free choice; therefore
they had the right to
• Jefferson
Davis was
named the
president of
Civil War: Union v. Confederacy
Lincoln’s belief
“A house divided against
itself cannot stand.”
He meant that the U.S.
could not survive if it was
divided in two
He urged the Confederate
states to return to the
He said, “We are not
enemies, but friends.”
The differences between
the states were two great.
Lincoln’s MAIN
GOAL was to SAVE
Secession: when part of a country
breaks away from the rest
Abraham Lincoln
•argued against slavery (did not push
•wanted to stop the spread of slavery
•wanted country to be united
Civil War: war between 2 groups or
regions within a nation
North vs South
 Union
 Confederacy
 President:
 President:
Jefferson Davis
Fort Sumter – 1st battle of the
Civil War
Confederate forces wanted to take
control over Fort Sumter, South
Carolina. Lincoln refused to
surrender the fort. Instead, he sent
supplies to it.
 The state militia began surrounding
the federal fort which had U.S. soldiers
Lincoln wanted to show that he would
not give in to the Confederacy.
 However, he did not want to start a
war either. He hoped the southern
states would return to the Union
 Confederate leaders saw the refusal to
surrender the fort as an act of war.
 They ordered cannons to fire on the
fort. The 1st shot was fired on April 12,
The cannons fired on Fort Sumter for
34 hours.
 At last, the soldiers in the fort had to
 The attack on Fort Sumter marked the
beginning of the Civil War.
 President Lincoln called for 75,000
soldiers to fight the rebellion.
 Some states refused to send men to
help Lincoln.
 AK, NC, TN, and VA joined the
confederacy instead.
Fort Sumter, S.C., April 4, 1861, under the Confederate flag.
Fort Sumter
• Fort Sumter,
South Carolina,
was important
because it
• Therefore, the
defeating the
Union soldiers.
* The Civil War had now begun!
Pvt. Edmund Ruffin,
Confederate soldier who
fired the 1st shot against
Fort Sumter
Maj. Robert Anderson,
defender of Fort Sumter
Effects of the attack at Ft. Sumter
4 more slave states seceded: VA, NC, AR,
TN = 11 total
4 slave states stayed in the Union: DE, MD,
KY, MO = border states
They made up the border between the
North & South (part of VA also stayed and
became WV in 1863)