Download chapter 1 the multicultural journey to cultural competence

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Gender advertisement wikipedia , lookup

Gender apartheid wikipedia , lookup

Exploitation of women in mass media wikipedia , lookup

Female promiscuity wikipedia , lookup

Statistics on Women
 According to the U.S. Census 2010, there were 156,964,211 women in
contrast to 151,781,326 men.
 Women because of society’s patriarchal structure continue to face
 This chapter focuses on feminist issues.
 Feminism refers to efforts directed toward gender equality on social,
economic, political, and other fronts.
 Feminist therapists believe that patriarchy contributes to women’s stress
and psychological symptoms, so they focus on empowerment and
Societal Pressures
 Women are still expected to be caregivers and are still
evaluated by physical beauty.
 Many women are employed outside the home and now see
marriage as an option.
 Women continue to be treated as sexual objects.
 There is still pressure for women to be thin, which can lead
to self-esteem issues and disordered eating.
 Women are often socialized to meet the needs of others and
take on the roles of nurture and caregiver.
Discrimination, Harassment
and Victimization
 Women continue to face sexism in
professional settings.
 Sexual harassment continues to be prevalent.
 Sexual victimization and intimate partner
violence disproportionately affect women.
Educational Barriers
 Girls are underrepresented in math and
science; female students receive less
attention and encouragement; female
students may be sexually harassed.
 Young women are penalized for speaking
Economic and Employment
 Women continue to face barriers in many career tracks—especially math
and science.
 Stereotypes against women inhibit their performance.
 Women also continue to earn only about 77% of what men earn.
 If a woman behaves in a task-oriented style, she may not be as likable.
 Women continue to be overrepresented in lower wage jobs (e.g., cashier,
secretary, nurses aide, and teaching).
 Women leaders confront divergent expectations (e.g. assertive versus
 Barriers to corporate women’s advancement include tokenism, old boys
network, and less effective mentoring.
 With the emphasis on youth and sexism, older women are
viewed more negatively than older men.
 Women increasingly outnumber men as they age (two men
for every five women over the age of 75).
 However, post menopausal women discuss feeling more
independent and self-assured (especially among welleducated women).
 Be aware of the various life transitions that older women go
though and be prepared to provide support to them.
 Up to 7 million women currently have depression, which is
twice the rate found in men.
 Factors contributing to depression include poor
socioeconomic status, unhealthy societal gender standards,
and posttraumatic stress.
 Deviation from beauty standards can lead to self-doubt and
poor self-image.
 Minority women face multiple discriminations that also
contribute to depression.
Gender Bias in Therapy
 Assess your own biases in terms of what it means to be a
 Be aware that you may interrupt women in therapy.
 Gender microaggresions can reduce the effectiveness of the
working alliance and decrease empowerment.
 Biases can exist in diagnosis (e.g., personality disorders
such as borderline and histrionic).
 Differentiate normal menstrual issues with premenstrual
dysmorphic disorder.
 Psychological theories are gender biased (e.g.,
Embracing Gender Strengths
 Affliative qualities such as being concerned
with relationships, sensitivity, and nurturance
can be effective at maintaining effective
interpersonal relationships.
 Consensus building, teamwork, and
cooperative efforts can help in the
Implications for Clinical
Possess up-to-date information regarding the biological,
psychological, and sociological issues that impact women; for
example, knowledge about menstruation, pregnancy, birth,
infertility and miscarriage, gender roles and health, and
discrimination, as well as their impact on women, is important.
Recognize that most counseling theories are male-centered and
require modification when working with women; for example,
cognitive approaches can focus on societal messages.
Attend workshops to explore gender-related factors in mental
health and be knowledgeable about issues related to women.
Implications for Clinical
Maintain awareness of all forms of oppression and understand
how they interact with sexism.
Employ skills that may be particularly appropriate for the needs
of women, such as assertiveness training, gender role analysis,
and consciousness-raising groups.
Assess sociocultural factors to determine their role in the
presenting problem.
Help clients realize the impact of gender expectations and
societal definitions of attractiveness on the mental health of
women so that they do not engage in self-blame.
Be ready to take an advocacy role in initiating systems-level
changes as they relate to sexism in education, business, and
other endeavors.
Assess for the possible impact of abuse or violence in all