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Transcript
Why Study the Psychology of
Women?

Critical thinking about gender issues.

Qualitative/Phenomenological vs.
Quantitative.


Statistical Significance.
Components of critical thinking.



Ask good questions about what you see or hear: a
search for moderator variables.
Determine when conclusions are supported by the
evidence provided.
Suggest alternative interpretations of the evidence.
Why Study the Psychology of
Women?

Many traditional psychological theories were
developed by studying all male sample, and
thus, have been gender biased .

Androcentrism = The male experience is viewed as
standard.

http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/18735108/ns/todaytravel/t/discrimination-debate-women-only-hotelfloors/
Women and Men: Similar or
Different?

Similarities Approach: Beta bias


Men and women are basically alike in their intellectual and social
behavior
Differences between women and men are produced by
socialization, not biology
Women and Men: Similar or
Different? (Cont…)

Differences Approach: Alpha bias



Emphasizes differences between women and men
Essentialism = Differences are thought to arise from essential
qualities within the individual that are rooted in biology
May emphasize and celebrate positive qualities historically
associated with women (cultural feminism)
Definitions.


sex = the classification of individuals as
female or male based on their genetic makeup,
anatomy, and reproductive functions.

gender = the meanings that societies and
individuals give to female and male categories.

gender differences = psychological differences
between males and females w/o regard for
causation.
Definitions (Cont…)

feminist = a person who favors political,
economic and social equality of men and
women, and therefore, favors legal and social
changes that will be necessary to achieve that
equality.

Post-feminism?
Ambivalent Sexism (Glick &
Fiske, 2007; Lee et al., 2010)

Hostile sexism: negative
stereotypes of women

Benevolent sexism: positive
characterizations such as
“women are pure” or
“women should be
protected”
Changes in sexist attitudes
over time

Sexism has decreased in the U.S. since 1970

May be due in part to changes in legislation

However, may reflect decreased social acceptability of blatantly
sexist views rather than real changes in beliefs

Women vary in their willingness to acknowledge their own
experience with discrimination (e.g., Carvallo & Pelham, 2006)
Sources of Sex Bias in
Psychological Research.







Bias in topic selection & questions asked.
Bias in choice of sample.
Bias in measurement.
Experimenter effects.
Observer effects.
Bias in interpretation.
Bias in publishing the results.