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There are so
many career
opportunities
in the field of
Biology.
Anatomy &
Physiology
will help you
get there!
Chapter 1
Introduction to
Anatomy & Physiology
I.
Introduction
A.
Early ancestors were
concerned about injuries and
illnesses – treated them with
superstitions, magic, &
potions
B.
Later, cadavers (dissected
human bodies) were
examined for cause of
death and studied
C.
Greek & Latin terms were
coined to name body parts,
describe locations, and
explain functions and
interactions
Pg. 2
II.
Anatomy and Physiology (A & P)
Anatomy – branch of science that deals with
the structure of body parts, their forms and
organization
Physiology – branch of science that is
concerned with the functions of body parts,
what they do and how they do it
III.
Levels of Organization – all materials of the
body are made of chemicals, which consist of:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Atoms – microscopic particles
Molecules – atoms joined together
Macromolecules – molecules that
join together to make larger molecules
Organelles – small parts of a cell &
made of macromolecules
Cell
1.
made up of organelles
2.
are the basic unit of structure and
function (the what & why)
3.
vary in size, shape, & function
4.
are microscopic
F.
Tissue – cells organized into layers
G.
H.
Organ – group of interacting tissues
Organ System – group of organs that
function closely together
Organism – group of organ systems
working together
I.
Pg. 4
IV.
Characteristics of Life
Pg. 5
* These are known as METABOLISM: all the chemical
reactions in the body that break substances down and
build them up
V.
Maintaining Life
A.
Requirements
1.
Water – for metabolism; transports
substances, regulates body temp
2.
Food – provides chemical energy &
materials to build new matter
3.
Oxygen – releases energy from food
4.
Heat – product of metabolic reactions
(more heat = faster reactions)
5.
Pressure
a.
air pressure to get O2 to lungs
& CO2 out
b.
blood pressure to pump blood
through blood vessels
B. Homeostasis –
tendency to maintain
a stable internal
environment with
narrow limits, like a
thermostat
(negative feedback)
1. Shivering – muscular
contractions produce
heat when cold
2. Sweating – blood
vessels in skin dilate,
heat moves to
surface & evaporates
Only a few positive feedback mechanisms exist:
 blood clotting – chemicals in a clot promote
more clotting
 milk production – with more force/duration
during nursing, more milk is produced
 Childbirth – contractions to expel baby produce
more contractions until the baby is out
VI. Organization of the Human Body (pgs 9-10)
A.
Body Cavities – spaces for organs
B.
Thoracic & Abdominopelvic Membranes
* Parietal membranes line a cavity
* Visceral membranes cover organs
1.
2.
3.
Parietal Pleura – lines thoracic cavity
Visceral Pleura – covers lungs
Pleural Cavity – fluid-filled space b/t
parietal & visceral pleura
Pg. 10
4.
5.
6.
Pg. 10
Parietal Pericardium – outer covering of
heart
Visceral Pericardium – inner covering of
heart
Pericardial Cavity – fluid-filled space b/t
parietal & visceral pericardium
7.
8.
9.
Parietal Peritoneum – lines
abdominopelvic cavity
Visceral Peritoneum – covers each
organ of abdominopelvic cavity
Peritoneal Cavity – fluid-filled space
b/t parietal & visceral peritoneum
Pg. 11
VII. Anatomical Terminology (see Lab 2)
* Anatomical Position – body is standing erect,
face forward, upper limbs at sides, palms facing
forward
* Right & Left refer to the body in the
anatomical position (as if it were your body)
A.
Relative Positions – one part is
compared with another (book pg. 14)
1.
Superior (cranial)
toward the head
Inferior (caudal)
away from the head
2.
Anterior (ventral)
toward the front
Posterior (dorsal)
away from the front
3.
Lateral – side
Medial – midline
4.
Superficial
toward the surface
Deep
away from the surface
5.
Proximal
toward the trunk
Distal
away from the trunk
B.
Body Planes & Sections (pg. 15)
1.
2.
Cuts made on the sagittal / median
plane OR coronal / frontal plane
result in a longitudinal section (c)
Cuts made on the transverse /
horizontal plane result in a cross
section (a) or oblique section (b)
C.
Body Regions (Pg. 17)
D.
Abdominal Quadrants (Pg. 16)
Review your Anatomical Terminology!
http://www.wisconline.com/Objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=AP15405
http://www.wisconline.com/Objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=AP15305
http://www.wisconline.com/objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=AP14904
Now, try your luck at organ placement!
http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/bo
dy/index_interactivebody.shtml