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Transcript
Hinduism
Hindu Basics
• 3rd largest religion in the
world
– 837 million adherents
– 13% of the world’s
population
• Practiced primarily in
India and Nepal
• ~ 80% of Indians practice
Hinduism
Hindu Basics
• Often considered the
oldest religion in the
world.
– Has no founder
• Sanskrit is the ancient
language of Hinduism.
• Hindu comes from the
Persian word for the
people living on the other
side of the Indus River.
Vedas
The ancient scriptures of Hinduism. A collection
of hymns, prayers, rituals, chants, etc… They are
not the only sacred writings of Hinduism.
Concepts of god
• Most Hindu believe in a
single god of the highest
form.
• Brahman
• God is everywhere, is
everything, and is beyond
everything.
– god represents the very
fabric of reality.
• People are thus part of
Brahman as well.
Ishvara
• The personal aspects
of God.
• Applying human traits
to god to better
communicate.
Brahma
• “Creator god”
Vishnu
• “preserver of the
world”
Shiva
• “destroyer or
transformer”
Nandi
• The vehicle of Shiva.
• Often seen at the
entrance to shrines of
Shiva.
sacred animals
Hindus believe that
all living beings have
a soul.
Dharma
• Generally translated as
“the law”.
• Varies according to caste
or class.
• Also seen in Buddhism
and Sikhism.
• How one should live their
life.
– Dharma determines karma
Karma
• Cause and effect
• “a fluttering butterfly’s
wings causing a storm on
the other side of the
world”
• Unbalance in karma will
be worked out in the next
life.
• Goodness begets
goodness and evil begets
evil.
Samsara
Sanskrit word referring to the cycle of reincarnation.
Moksha
• Release from the
cycle of birth and
rebirth.
• Realization of one’s
union with god.
Yoga
• Mental and physical
meditative practices.
Practices
• Shrines and temples
• Singing hymnals,
reciting scriptures and
chanting mantras.
Bindi
• Help concentration and
retain energy
• Protect against demons
or bad luck
• Traditionally indicated
that a woman was
married
• Worn all over South and
South East Asia
– Not only Hindus
Pilgrimages and festivals
• Holy cities in Hinduism
– Allahabad, Varanasi
• Holi
– Festival of Colors
• Diwali
– Festival of Lights
– Return of Lord Raama after
defeating the demon king
Ravana – ruler of Lanka
Ganges River
• Varanasi is considered by
some to be the holiest
site in Hinduism.
– On the banks of the
Ganges R.
• Some believe they must
bathe in it once in a
lifetime
– Cleanse a persons soul
from sins
– Heal the sick
The caste system is a type of SOCIAL ORDER
in which a person’s occupation and position
in life is determined by the circumstances of
his/her birth.
Traditional
Caste System in
South Asia
Brahmans
Kshatriyas
4 Original
Levels of the
Caste System
Vaisyas
Sudras
Showing the
original caste
levels in the pyramid
shape symbolizes “status”
from highest to lowest,
but also represents
the the portion of
the population
fitting into each level.
**Remember that
this social order
is not based
on how much
$$ you have
Brahmans
Kshatriyas
Vaisyas
Sudras
Untouchables are NOT a part of the caste system.
Largest %
of population
Brahmans: priests/ scholars
Kshatriyas: warriors
Vaisyas: farmers and merchants
sudras
(artisans and laborers)
Untouchables (dalits)
Vaisyas: Merchants & farmers
(most Woods families here)
Sudras: laborers
Comparisons
in the “West”
Kshatriyas: Military
leaders and politicians.
Brahmins: Religious leaders &
scholars
Be the change you wish to see
in the world.
-Mohandas Gandhi
Gandhi was assassinated by a Hindu extremist in 1948. He died
at the age of 79.