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Introduction to Java
August 14, 2008
Mrs. C. Furman
Developed by James Gosling at SUN
Microsystems, initially as a tool to address
problems other languages didn’t handle
 Introduced in 1995
 Object-Oriented Language
Compilers & Interpreters
Java compiler translates source code into bytecode – a
representation of the program in a low-level form, similar
to machine language
Java interpreter reads Java bytecode and executes it on
a specific machine.
Another compiler could translate the bytecode into a
particular machine language for efficient execution
Java is not tied to a particular processor type. It is
“Architectual Neutral” and easily portable from one
machine to another, over different OS.
Software Engineering
Computer Programming – refers to the
process of software development. We
build a program in stages.
 Software Engineering – the application of
systematic and disciplined approach to
development, testing and maintenance of
a program
Software Life Cycle
Analysis – feasibility study. Analyze the
problem to determine whether a solution is
possible. The result of this phase is a
requirements specification, that describes the
features of the program
Design – turn requirements specification into a
detailed design of the program. The result of
this phase is a set of classes/objects that fulfill
the requirements.
Software Life Cycle Cont…
Coding – implementing the design into an
actual program. This should be the shortest
part of the cycle if our design is well done.
Testing – running the program using different
sets of data to verify that the program runs
according to specifications. Two types of
Unit Testing – test each class individually.
Integration Testing – test that each class works
Software Life Cycle Cont…
4B. Debugging – Eliminates any program errors.
An error could be a result of faulty
implementation or design.
5. Operation – the program is actually used. The
most important and time-consuming activity
during the operation phase is software
maintenance. We often need to change and add
features for customers, or fix previously
undetected errors. It is estimated that 70% of
the cost of software is related to maintenance.