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Programming
Languages
Programming Languages
Evolve
• In the early days of computers, the only
language was machine code.
Assembly Code came next
• As the hardware improved and the
understanding of computers grew, humans
wanted an easier language than machine
code. Assembly is better but not great!
• FORTRAN—the oldest high-level
programming language; designed for
scientific and mathematical
applications.
• John Backus
Popular Programming
Languages, Cont’d.
• COBOL—designed for business
transaction processing.
Popular Programming
Languages, Cont’d.
• Pascal—designed to teach structured
programming; useful for math and
science applications.
• Niklaus
Wirth
Popular Programming
Languages, Cont’d.
• BASIC—an easy-to-learn beginner’s
programming language.
• Visual Basic—
an object-oriented, fourth-generation
version of BASIC.
Popular Programming
Languages, Cont’d.
• C, C++, C#—versions of the highly
efficient C programming language; C++
and C# are object-oriented.
• Dennis
Ritchie
• Bjorne
Stroustrap
Popular Programming
Languages, Cont’d.
• Java—object-oriented programming
language commonly used for Web
applications.
– Platform independence—Java programs
can run on any platform that supports the
Java Virtual Machine.
• Java applets—concise stand-alone
Java applications ready to be inserted
into Web pages.
– Class files
Popular Programming
Languages, Cont’d.
• Other high-level languages:
– Ada
– APL
– LISP
– Logo
– HTML
– PHP
– Python
– PL/1
– Prolog
– RPG
– SmallTalk
– Perl
– XML