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How can you spot a marketing orientated business? Customer orientation Competitor Awareness Interfuctional Coordination Narver and Slater (1990) Why is this an advantage? Outward looking Responsive to change Efficient targeting of resources and actions Avoids marketing myopia Characteristic activities systematic analysis of the market (research, MIS) forward planning (strategy, business plan) regular updating (product development) clear communication (brand image, IMC strategy) delivering expectations ( customer care, quality assurance) monitoring the effectiveness of these activities Morgan p292-3 So why doesn’t it happen? Barriers to Marketing Orientation Jobber (1995) Saying rather than doing too expensive? unquantifiable benefits personal ambitions - empire building reward systems • reward sales or savings, not satisfaction Product, Sales or Operations orientation Marketing in the organisation Marketing is too important to leave to the marketing department Drucker Internal marketing – develop, train and motivate front-line staff Gronroos – win support for marketing policies from other functions • supporters, neutrals, opposers Jobber How to organise the Marketing Department Aims to allocate responsibility to define lines of communication to ensure supervision and control to retain staff by giving them the opportunity of promotion to ensure responsiveness Functional structure Functional Organisation Marketing Director Marketing Manager Product Development Manager Type title here Advertising and Promotions Manager Market Research Manager Other structures Product/Brand – Short Sea, Western Channel, Irish Sea – inclusive holidays Customer type – agency sales, coach and tour operators, freight Geographic – area sales managers Special cases: Can SMEs be marketing-orientated? Personal enthusiasm Product orientation Niche market ‘no need for research’ Shortage of resources – time, money expertise suspicious of high cost solutions Special cases: public sector Complex/conflicting objectives Political influence – lack of support – spending constraints – interference Lack of control over the whole product – e.g. destination marketing Destination Marketing How do you market a product you don’t own? Theming and branding Quality control and assurance • training, advice and research Facilitation of exchanges (Middleton) – between elements of the industry Joint marketing campaigns Enquiries and reservations flagship projects Bournemouth - Britain's Best Resort