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How can you spot a
marketing orientated business?
Customer orientation
Competitor Awareness
Interfuctional Coordination
Narver and Slater (1990)
Why is this an advantage?
Outward looking
Responsive to change
Efficient targeting of resources and
Avoids marketing myopia
Characteristic activities
systematic analysis of the market (research, MIS)
forward planning (strategy, business plan)
regular updating (product development)
clear communication (brand image, IMC strategy)
delivering expectations ( customer care, quality
monitoring the effectiveness of these activities
Morgan p292-3
So why doesn’t it happen?
Barriers to Marketing Orientation Jobber (1995)
Saying rather than doing
too expensive? unquantifiable benefits
personal ambitions - empire building
reward systems
• reward sales or savings, not satisfaction
Product, Sales or Operations orientation
Marketing in the organisation
Marketing is too important to leave to the
marketing department Drucker
 Internal marketing
– develop, train and motivate front-line staff
– win support for marketing policies from
other functions
• supporters, neutrals, opposers Jobber
How to organise
the Marketing Department
to allocate responsibility
to define lines of communication
to ensure supervision and control
to retain staff by giving them the
opportunity of promotion
to ensure responsiveness
Functional structure
Functional Organisation
Marketing Director
Marketing Manager
Product Development Manager
Type title here
and Promotions Manager
Market Research
Other structures
– Short Sea, Western Channel, Irish Sea
– inclusive holidays
Customer type
– agency sales, coach and tour operators,
– area sales managers
Special cases: Can SMEs be
Personal enthusiasm
 Product orientation
 Niche market
 ‘no need for research’
 Shortage of resources
– time, money expertise
 suspicious
of high cost solutions
Special cases: public sector
Complex/conflicting objectives
Political influence
– lack of support
– spending constraints
– interference
Lack of control over the whole product
– e.g. destination marketing
Destination Marketing
How do you market a product you don’t own?
 Theming and branding
 Quality control and assurance
• training, advice and research
Facilitation of exchanges (Middleton)
– between elements of the industry
Joint marketing campaigns
Enquiries and reservations
flagship projects
Bournemouth - Britain's Best Resort