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Transcript
Speciation
• Defined: evolution of new
species from an existing
species
• Species: group of
organisms that can
interbreed and produce
fertile offspring
• 5 factors that lead to
evolution
–
–
–
–
–
Natural Selection
Gene flow
Mutations
Sexual selection
Genetic drift
baby
baby
Sterile
baby
Gene Flow
(Migration)
• Defined: Movement of alleles
from 1 population to another
– Increases variations in a population
– Keeps differing populations similar
• If gene flow is prevented
– No variations (alleles)
exchanged
– Populations are isolated
– Organisms adapt to their own
environment
– Can lead to speciation
Reproductive Isolation
• When populations are isolated
for a long time…gene flow stops
• When populations can no longer
mate or no longer reproduce
fertile offspring
• Final step in the development of
a new species
1) Geographic Isolation:
o Organisms isolated by
geographic barrier
Random DNA
mutations
Random DNA
mutations
Different
predators
Different
predators
Different
resources
Different
resources
California Salamanders: Evolution in Action
Ancestral
salamanders
One
species
One
species
Famous fruit
fly experiment
Fruit flies of the same
species were placed
into two separate
cages
Once isolated,
the 2 groups
were fed different
types of food
Although
isolated, the flies
continued to live
and reproduce
for many
generations
When brought
back together
most separated
during
reproduction.
Reproductive Isolation
• When populations are isolated for a
long time…gene flow stops
• When populations can no longer
mate or no longer reproduce fertile
offspring
• Final step in the development of a
new species
1) Geographic Isolation:
o Organisms isolated by
geographic barrier
2) Behavioral Isolation
o Organisms isolated by differing
mating rituals
If the mating calls do not attract
each other, will they reproduce?
Is gene flow stopped?
Birds of Paradise
Human mating rituals
Human mating rituals
Human mating rituals
Human mating rituals
Human mating rituals
Reproductive Isolation
• When populations are isolated for a
long time…gene flow stops
• When populations can no longer
mate or no longer reproduce fertile
offspring
• Final step in the development of a
new species
If one group mates during the spring…
1) Geographic Isolation:
Is gene flow stopped?
o Organisms isolated by
And the other mates during the fall…
geographic barrier
2) Behavioral Isolation
o Organisms isolated by differing
mating rituals
3) Temporal Isolation
o Organisms isolated by differing
times of reproduction
Genetic Drift
• Defined: Changes in allele frequencies due to chance
– NOT natural selection
• Bottleneck effect
– More likely in smaller populations
– Results in a loss of genetic variation (alleles)
– Example: Natural disaster
• Pre-forest fire: Green is best adapted (blend better)
• Post-forest fire: Brown more likely to reproduce
– Survival UNRELATED to adaptations
Review
•
•
•
•
What is speciation?
What leads to speciation?
What is gene flow?
What happens if gene flow is
prevented?
• How are temporal,
behavioral, and geographic
isolation different?
• How are temporal,
behavioral, and geographic
isolation similar?
• What are the 5 factors that
lead to evolution?