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Section 10.4
Nineteenth-Century
Progress
Breakthroughs in science and technology
transform daily life and entertainment.
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Nineteenth-Century Progress
Inventions Make Life Easier
Edison the Inventor
• Thomas Edison patents over 1,000 inventions in
research laboratory
Bell and Marconi Revolutionize
Communication
• In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell invents telephone
• In 1895, Italian Guglielmo Marconi builds first radio
Thomas Edison
Marconi
Ford Sparks the Automobile Industry
• In 1880s, Germans invent first automobile
• Henry Ford lowers cost with assembly
line—one task per worker
assembly line
The Wright Brothers Fly
• In 1903, Wright brothers develop
first working airplane
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New Ideas in Medicine
The Germ Theory of Disease
• Louis Pasteur discovers existence of bacteria
while observing fermentation
• He and others discover that bacteria
cause disease
• Sterilizing instruments reduces deaths & infection
• Medical researchers develop vaccines; cities
improve sanitation
Pasteur
New Ideas in Science
Darwin Challenges Traditional Beliefs
•Charles Darwin— Develops theory of
evolution
•In 1880s most people believe in “special
creation” by God
Darwin
Darwin’s Theory of Evolution
•Darwin’s idea of natural selection says
competition elevates fittest
•Theory of evolution—species change
slowly through natural selection
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New Ideas in Science
Mendel and Genetics
• Austrian monk Gregor Mendel discovers patterns
to inherited traits
• Mendel’s work begins the science of genetics
Advances in Chemistry and Physics
Mendel
• In 1803, John Dalton theorizes all matter is made of
atoms
• In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev creates periodic table
• Radioactivity—type of energy discovered by Marie
and Pierre Curie
Marie Curie
Social Sciences Explore Behavior
Freud
New Ideas in Social Science
•Sciences of archaeology, sociology,
anthropology begin in 1800s
•Psychology—study of human mind,
behavior
•Ivan Pavlov studies conditioning in dogs
•Sigmund Freud studies unconscious,
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The Rise of Mass Culture
From Leisure Culture to Mass Culture
• Mass culture—art, music, writing, entertainment for
large audience
Changes Produce Mass Culture
• Leisure activities (movies, music) now available to
working class
Music Halls, Vaudeville, and Movies
• Traveling acts feature music, juggling, dancing
• In 1880s, people develop early projections of
moving images
• First feature films made in early 1900’s
Sports Entertain Millions
• Spectator sports draw huge crowds; modern
Olympics in Greece, 1896
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