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Transcript
Genetics & DNA Technology
65. Gregor Mendel crossed a true-breeding tall
plant (TT) with a true-breeding short plant (tt).
What are the possible phenotypes for the
offspring?
A. All tall
B. All short
C. Ratio of 1 tall : 1 short
D. Ratio of 2 tall : 1 short
Genetics & DNA Technology
66. A population of crabs living on a sandy beach
exhibits three colors: dark brown, light brown, and
speckled. The genotypes for these colors are BB for
dark brown, bb for light brown, and Bb for
speckled. If a dark brown crab were crossed with a
light brown crab, what would be the probable
phenotypic ratio of their offspring?
A. All speckled
B. All dark brown
C. 3 dark brown : 1 light brown
D. 1 dark brown : 2 speckled : 1 light brown
Genetics & DNA Technology
67. In snap peas, yellow flowers (Y) are
dominant to white flowers (y). In the cross YY
× Yy, what would be the genotypic ratio of the
F1 generation?
A 1:1
B 1:2
C 1:3
D 3:1
Genetics & DNA Technology
68. A population of crabs living on a sandy beach exhibits three colors: dark brown,
light brown, and speckled, as shown above. The genotypes for these colors are BB
for dark brown, bb for light brown, and Bb for speckled. The speckled crabs blend
in extremely well with the color of the sand on the beach. The pattern appears to
provide the speckled crabs with some protection from predatory birds. Which of
the following conclusions can be drawn from the information above?
A. Only the speckled crabs will survive, and all of their offspring will be speckled.
B. The allele for light brown color will be lost because of predatory birds eating light
brown crabs.
C. The allele for dark brown color will be lost because of predatory birds eating dark
brown crabs.
D. Both the light brown and dark brown alleles will continue to be passed on in the crab
population.
Genetics & DNA Technology
69. The technique known as chromosome painting is the
result of scientific research. Scientists use chromosome
painting to mark the locations of genes on human
chromosomes with fluorescent tags. It is also possible to
apply this technique to the chromosomes of many
different species. Chromosome painting allows for which of
the following?
F.
G.
H.
J.
A comparison of the genomes of different species
The sequencing of proteins from many species
An increase in mutations in many species
The extraction of amino acids from different species
Genetics & DNA Technology
70. If several pea plants with the genotype TTYy are
crossed with pea plants with the genotype Ttyy,
what percentage of the offspring will be expected to
have the TTYy allele combination?
A. 25%
B. 40%
C. 50%
D. 75%
Genetics & DNA Technology
71. In cocker spaniels the allele for a black coat
color (B) is dominant over the allele for a brown
coat color (b). If a brown cocker spaniel is crossed
with a heterozygous black cocker spaniel, which of
the following genotypic ratios can be expected?
F.
G.
H.
J.
0 BB: 2 Bb: 2 bb
1 BB: 2 Bb: 1 bb
2 BB: 0 Bb: 2 bb
2 BB: 1 Bb: 0 bb
Genetics & DNA Technology
72. The processes of deletion, insertion, and
substitution can alter genes in a skin cell. The
altered genes will most likely be passed on to
A. sperm cells
B. egg cells
C. every cell that develops from that skin cell
D. only a few of the cells that develop from that
skin cell
Genetics & DNA Technology
73. The fact that a strain of yeast with a certain
defective gene can use the human version of the
gene to repair itself is evidence that yeast and
humans —
A. depend on the same food supply
B. share a genetic code
C. both have eukaryotic cells
D. have identical genomes
Genetics & DNA Technology
74. The diagram below represents a segment of a gene
on two chromosomes.
The change in the gene sequence is an example of
A. an insertion
B. a deletion
C. a substitution
D. a replication
Evolution
75. After examining the fossil record, scientists have
determined that scorpions today are much smaller than
their extinct ancestors. For example, Jaekelopterus
rhenaniae, a giant scorpion species that lived 255 million to
460 million years ago, was 2.5 meters long. Which of the
following conclusions is supported by this information?
F. Scorpions living today have increased their numbers
since they first appeared.
G. Scorpions in the fossil record are smaller than their
descendants are.
H. Scorpions have changed as a result of natural selection.
J. Scorpions do not appear in their original state in the
fossil record.
Evolution
76. A harmless scarlet king snake and a venomous eastern
coral snake have similar band patterns, as shown below.
For the scarlet king snake, the adaptation of having a
banding pattern like the eastern coral snake’s is known as
mimicry.
The outcome of this adaptation in the scarlet king snake is to—
A. make it easier for the scarlet king snake to attract prey
B. make it easier for the scarlet king snake to interbreed with
the other snake
C. allow the scarlet king snake to blend in with its environment
D. protect the scarlet king snake from predators
Evolution
77. Gene flow is one force that can cause evolutionary change.
Which example best illustrates gene flow?
A. A flock of migrating geese enters into the territory of
another flock and begins interbreeding.
B. A flock of geese becomes isolated on an island, and over
time, the population begins to exhibit new characteristics.
C. Some individuals in a flock of geese have genes that are
more advantageous, and over time, the numbers of these
geese increase.
D. A flock of migrating geese loses its way to its wintering
grounds, leaving other geese without competition for
resources and enabling those geese to produce more
offspring.
Evolution
78. Some organisms have genes that improve their
ability to survive and reproduce. If the genes also
help their offspring survive and reproduce, then
which of the following will most likely increase?
F. The frequency of the genes in one individual
G. The frequency of the genes in the population
H. The number of genes in one chromosome
J. The number of genes in the species
Evolution
79. Which finches would be most like the ancestral finch?
A. large ground finches
C. warbler finches
B. cactus finches
D. large tree finches
80. Present-day cactus finches are a type of
A. tree finch
C. warbler finch
B. ground finch
D. ancestral finch
Evolution
81. When Darwin first proposed his theory of evolution by natural
selection, the field of genetics did not yet exist. In what way does
genetic science now contribute to the study of evolution?
A. Scientists can create organisms that were extinct using DNA
from fossils and better understand how they evolved.
B. Scientists can use genetic engineering to carry out the process
of evolution over just months instead of millions of years.
C. Scientists can compare the DNA from fossils in rock to determine
evolutionary relationships among extinct species.
D. Scientists can determine evolutionary relationships among
living species by comparing amino acid and DNA
sequences.
Evolution
82. Zoogeographic regions are characterized by the presence of specific
groups of animals. These regions are determined by the taxonomic or
phylogenetic relationships of animals. The map shows the zoogeographic
regions proposed by the naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace in 1876.
The similarities of organisms in which two areas numbered above provide
the best evidence for common ancestry between the organisms in both
locations?
A. 1 and 2
C. 5 and 6
B. 3 and 4
D. 7 and 8
Evolution
83. The limbs of several organisms are shown in the illustrations below.
Scientists sometimes compare the limbs of these organisms to look for
evidence of common ancestry.
These limbs provide evidence of common ancestry because they —
F.
G.
H.
J.
have the same basic structure
perform the same function
are the same size
are parts of mammals
Evolution
84. A paleontologist is studying the distribution of ancient
gastropods using the fossil record. What can she infer about
the age of the fossils based on their location in the fossil
record?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Fossils found in lower layers are generally younger
than those found in upper layers.
Fossils found in lower layers are generally older than
those found in upper layers.
Fossils found in lower layers are too old to undergo
Carbon-14 dating, and are therefore more than 60,000
years old.
Fossils found in consecutive layers always are the
same age, based on radiometric dating.
Evolution
85. Genetic drift states that the random effects of
everyday life can cause differences in the survival and
reproduction of individuals. What is one effect of
genetic drift on evolution?
A. It produces only the traits in a population that are
best adapted to the environment.
B. It can cause an unusual amount of genetic variation
within a single population of a species.
C. It can cause a population’s allele frequencies to stay
in genetic equilibrium.
D. It can cause certain traits in a population to increase
in frequency even if those traits are not the ones
that are best adapted to the environment.
Classification
86. Having a standard taxonomic system benefits the
scientific community by allowing scientists from all
over the world to do which of the following?
A. Have a common system for the classification of
locations containing fossils
B. Use a similar system to classify the impact of
removing species from ecosystems
C. Have a common understanding in the classification
of organisms
D. Understand how other scientists classify predator–
prey relationships
Classification
87. A student collected the animal shown below on a field trip.
The student used a dichotomous key and a microscope to
classify the animal. How should this animal be classified?
A. Arthropoda
B. Annelida
C. Mollusca
D. Platyhelminthes
Classification
88. Arthropods are joint-legged animals. Spiders,
crabs, pill bugs, centipedes, and millipedes are
examples of the many types of arthropods. Which
of these arthropods are most closely related?
F. Arthropods of the same family
G. Arthropods of the same class
H. Arthropods of the same genus
J. Arthropods of the same species
Classification
89. The diagram shows taxonomic groups and a major
distinguishing characteristic of all but two of them.
Which characteristics will be used to complete the chart?
Classification
90. The Venn diagram above compares the two kingdoms Archaebacteria and
Eubacteria. Which of the following scientific explanations supports the division
of archaea, or archaebacteria, and bacteria into two different domains?
A. Archaea cause disease, but bacteria do not.
B. Bacteria have a nucleus, but archaea do not.
C. Archaea are single-celled, but bacteria often have more than one cell.
D. Archaea and bacteria exhibit differences in cell walls, cell membranes, and
gene structure.
Classification
91. In the Linnaean system of classification,
organisms are grouped in successive levels of
hierarchy based on similarities in their form and
structure. The diagram models the eight basic levels
of the modern Linnaean system. Which level of the
Linnaean system does level 8
represent in the figure?
A. Class
B. Domain
C. Family
D. Species
Classification
92. The diagram above shows the evolutionary relationships
among five animals. What major characteristic is the same
for all five animals?
A. All are carnivores.
B. All have backbones.
C. All spend their entire lives on land.
D. All maintain a constant body temperature.
Classification
93. Which series represents the correct order of
levels of classification, from broadest to
narrowest?
A. Domain, kingdom, phylum, order, class, family,
genus, species
B. Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family,
genus, species
C. Kingdom, phylum, domain, order, class, family,
genus, species
D. Species, genus, family, class, order, phylum,
kingdom, domain
Classification
94. The dichotomous key below provides a way to classify
some animals into groups according to their physical
characteristics.
Classification
95. An organism is made up of many cells, similar to
the cell shown in the diagram below.
What can you conclude about the organism?
A. It is a type of prokaryote.
B. It belongs to the domain Archaea.
C. It belongs to the domain Eukarya.
D. It belongs to the kingdom Protista.