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Earth Materials: Rocks and Minerals Rocks have many properties, including shape, size, color, and texture. Geologists use rock properties to help identify different rocks. Rocks are made of many ingredients. These ingredients are called minerals. Minerals have only ONE ingredient – the mineral itself. Evaporation is a technique used to separate liquid from solid parts of a mixture. Crystal patterns left from evaporation can help us identify minerals. Minerals have different properties, too. Properties can include size, color, shape, mass, and … … hardness. A scratch test is used to find the hardness of a mineral. The Moh’s Scale of Hardness tells us the hardness or softness of a mineral. Calcite is one of the most common minerals on Earth. Calcite is the only mineral that bubbles when it comes in contact with cold acid. Evaporation can be used as an extra test to show a rock contains calcite. Granite is a rock made up of minerals, including feldspar, hornblende, mica, and quartz.