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Landscapes –Geomorphic
• Geomorphology is the branch of
geology concerned with the structure,
origin and development of the
topographical features of the Earth's
(Geocaching website -
• Pertaining to the form of the earth, or of its
surface features.
• Refers to the “Abiotic” or “non-living”
• The physical template on which all living
things and processes interact and modify
to change the surface of the Earth.
4 key elements of
• Relief – shape and height of landforms
• Abiotic – soil and rock formation and type
• Bio-systems (Biomes) – plants and
• Climate – normal annual weather
conditions, intensity and angle of sunlight
• Abiotic, as in inorganic, which is an non-living
physical and chemical attribute of a system
within an environment, for example: - light,
temperature, wind patterns, rocks, soil, pH,
pressure, etc.
• The landforms that develop upon a particular
kind of bedrock are related to its structural
features such as bedding planes, joints, folds
and faults, and to its mineralogical
composition. Rock structure determines both
major landforms and details of the landscape.
(Online Dictionary)
• The relief is the result of the internal
forces of the Earth (Earthquakes,
tectonic plate movement, volcanoes etc)
and external agents (wind, rain,
temperature, rivers, groundwater, ice,
humans etc).
• The internal forces are responsible for
the origin and elevation of topography
and the external agents cause the
erosion and the modeling of the Earth’s
• A major ecological community of
organisms (plant and animal) adapted to a
particular climatic or environmental
condition on a large geographic area in
which they occur.
• Biomes are dependent on a number of
factors in order to survive – most
importantly – climate, elevation, abiotic
conditions (soil type) etc
(biology Online)
• Climate is the average weather in a place
over many years. While the weather can
change in just a few hours, climate takes
hundreds, thousands, even millions of
years to change.
• The climatic elements of temperature,
precipitation, and wind are not the only
elements of climate, but they are the most
significant elements used to express the
climate of a region.
The relief
influences the
climate – e.g.
Biomes influence
the relief – e.g.
the roots of plants
can crack rocks
Direct influence
Indirect influence
In response
the climate
influence the
relief – e.g.
rainfall erodes
rock and soil
Biomes Influence
climate – e.g. trees
release water vapour
into the atmosphere
aiding in the creation
of clouds resulting in
rain i.e. rainforests
• Complete the landscape elements
relational diagram by researching how
each element “directly” or “indirectly”
influence the other.