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Grade 4
Big Idea VI: Earth Structures
Minerals, Rocks, Weathering, and Erosion
Mary Tweedy, Curriculum Support Specialist
Keisha Kidd, Curriculum Support Specialist
Dr. Millard Lightburn, District Supervisor
Division of Mathematics, Science and Advanced Academics
Big Idea 6: Earth Structures
• SC.4.E.6.1 Identify the three categories of rocks:
igneous, (formed from molten rock); sedimentary
(pieces of other rocks and fossilized organisms);
and metamorphic (formed from heat and pressure).
• SC.4.E.6.2 Identify the physical properties of
common earth-forming minerals, including
hardness, color, luster, cleavage, and streak color,
and recognize the role of minerals in the formation
of rocks.
Minerals and You
Every solid material made from nature that’s
neither plant or animal--not a living thing is a
mineral or made from minerals. Minerals touch
our lives in hundreds of ways each day. Life
as we know it would not exist without them.
What are minerals?
What are some minerals that touch your lives?
A Mineral is
•
•
•
•
A solid material that is formed by nature in or on Earth’s crust
A material that has a crystal form
A material that is not formed by a living thing
A material that has its own set of properties:
color
streak color
hardness
luster
cleavage
•
Minerals by Name
Mineral Identification
Sample Color
#
Feels
Texture
Streak Smells Luster Magnetic
Odor
Chemical
Hardness Weight
Mass
Is it a Rock?
What is a rock? How do you decide
if something is a rock?
Copy the list below? Circle the things that are rocks.
1. cement block
9. iron ore
2. dried mud
10. concrete
3. hardened lava
11. coal
4. asphalt (road tar) 12. brick
5. glass
13. a grave stone
6. piece of clay pot
14. marble statue
7. coral
15. granite
Explain your thinking: What
8. limestone
reasoning did you use to decide if it
was a rock?
Rocks: What are Rocks?
•
•
•
•
•
Solid earth material
Make up the crust of the Earth
Mixture of one or more minerals
Range in size from giant mountains to grains of sand
Can be smooth or rough, shiny or dull, one color or
many colors
• Three main types:
1. Sedimentary
Rock
2. Igneous Rock
3. Metamorphic Rock
Igneous Rocks
•
•
•
Form when magma (hot liquid rock) cools and
hardens
Common near volcanoes
“Fire formed” rocks:
granite
scoria
obsidian
pumice
2
Pumice is a gas-charged igneous rock.
Can you identify some others?
3
1
4
5
Metamorphic Rocks
•
•
•
Form when underground rocks are changed due to
high pressure
“Changed” rocks
Common in mountains
Sedimentary Rocks
•
•
•
•
Form when layers of rock particles get pressed together at
or near Earth's surface
https://www.pearsonsuccessnet.com/snpapp/login/login.jsp
“Layered” rocks
May contain fossils
Common near bodies of water or where water existed in the
past
Observe and Classify Rocks
Lab Inquiry
Three Main Types
1. Sedimentary Rock
2. Igneous Rock
3. Metamorphic Rock
Rock Cycle
Just Between the Two of Them
Granite
Quartz
Just Between the Two of Them
Observations
•
Sample One Sketch and Observations
Sample TwoSketch and Observations
Just Between the Two of Them
Connected Learning
1. How are rocks and minerals alike and
different?
2. What are the three types of rocks?
3. Which type of observation—sketch or writtendo you think gave you the best observations
about the two samples? Why?
4. How did the reading passage help you learn
more about rocks and minerals?
5. What are you wondering now?
Is it a Rock?
What is a rock? How do you decide
if something is a rock?
Copy the list below? Circle the things that are rocks.
1. cement block
9. iron ore
2. dried mud
10. concrete
3. hardened lava
11. coal
4. asphalt (road tar) 12. brick
5. glass
13. a grave stone
6. piece of clay pot
14. marble statue
7. coral
15. granite
Explain your thinking: What “rule”
8. limestone
or reasoning did you use to decide if
it was a rock?
Rocks and Minerals Review
1. Rocks are made of _____,
which are natural, nonliving solid
crystals.
2. The way a mineral’s surface
reflects light is called its ___.
3. Clay minerals cement layers of
sediment together to form
__________.
4. _________ is formed deep within
Earth’s crust.
5. Rock that has changed from one
type to another type of rock is
called.
A. Igneous Rock
B. Luster
C. Mineral
D. Sedimentary rock
E. Metamorphic Rock
The Importance of Rocks & Minerals
Name
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Rock
or
Mineral
Type
of
Rock
Use
Jobs Involving
Rocks & Minerals