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Transcript
Mrs. H. Anderson
ATOMS
 The smallest unit of matter = ATOMS
 Made of : Protons (+ charge, =Atomic #, mass)
Neutrons (no charge, have mass)
Electrons (- charge, no mass)
 The PROTONS & NEUTRONS together make the
center, or NUCLEUS of the atom.
 Electrons orbit around outside of the Nucleus
Elements
 A pure substance made of only one type of atom,
found on periodic table. Symbols have one or 2 letters
(ex: H= hydrogen, He = Helium)
 Each atom of one element will have the same, set number of
PROTONS, which makes its atomic number.
 A neutral, balanced element has equal numbers of protons,
neutrons, and electrons.
 Atomic MASS = protons + neutrons [not electrons!]
i.e. OXYGEN (O) has 8 protons and 8 neutrons,
so it’s atomic mass~ 8+8 = 16.
Atomic Mass  Protons +
⬅ Atomic number (same
Neutrons (hint: Atomic mass is always
as the # of protons, always a
whole number)
larger ➘ than atomic number, usually
double!)
SUBATOMIC PARTICLES
 PROTONS are CONSTANT, never lost/gained:
 Make the atomic number which DEFINES an element.
 Example: Oxygen ALWAYS has 8 protons
 ELECTRONS can be gained or lost, making IONS.
 Lose an electron, become positive ion (ie. Na+1)
 Gain an electron, become negative ion (ie. Cl-1)
 IONS like to bond together, because OPPOSITES attract!
Example: Na+ + Cl- ➞ NaCl (table salt!)
 NEUTRONS can be gained or lost, making ISOTOPES.
 Doesn’t affect atom charge (because it’s neutral)
 DOES affect atomic mass (= protons + neutrons)
BONDING
 When 2 or more different elements join together
with bonds = a COMPOUND.
 Hint: Look for more than one symbol written together. Examples:
 Water
Sugar
Salt
Caffeine
H20
C6H12O6
NaCl
C8H10N4O2
Formulas:
 How many ELEMENTS are in EACH of these?
 Water =
Sugar=
Salt=
(H20)
(C6H12O6)
(NaCl)
Caffeine=
(C8H10N4O2)
ELEMENTS HINT: How many CAPITAL letters are in the formula?
BONDING
• When 2 or more different elements join
together with bonds = a COMPOUND.
•
•
Hint: Look for more than one symbol written together. Examples:
Water
Sugar
Salt
Caffeine
H20
C6H12O6
NaCl
C8H10N4O2
• How many ELEMENTS are in EACH of these?
• Water =
2
Sugar=
3
Salt= 2
caffeine= 4
• How many ATOMS are in one molecule of each of these?
• Water =
Sugar=
Salt=
caffeine=
ATOMS HINT: Add up little numbers (subscripts) If there is no # = 1
BONDING
• When 2 or more different elements join
together with bonds = a COMPOUND.
•
•
Hint: Look for more than one symbol written together. Examples:
Water
Sugar
Salt
Caffeine
H20
C6H12O6
NaCl
C8H10N4O2
• How many ELEMENTS are in EACH of these?
• Water =
2
Sugar=
3
Salt= 2
caffeine= 4
• How many ATOMS are in one molecule of each of these?
• Water =
3
Sugar= 24
Salt= 2
caffeine= 24
ATOMS HINT: Add up little numbers (subscripts) If there is no # = 1
WATER: H2O
• YOU are ~70% water.
• Water helps maintain homeostasis.
• Properties of water:
• Cohesion: Sticks to itself (like “bubble” on top of penny)
• Adhesion: Sticks to other stuff (ex: straws / gets stuff wet)
• Solvent: Water dissolves stuff
•
Spreads out ions = “aqueous solutions” (like salt, Koolaid…)
• A “SOLUTION” = a solid or liquid (“solute”) evenly dissolved
in a liquid “solvent” (often water)
• In KoolAid, the mix is the solute, water is the solvent.
ELEMENTS TO KNOW:
CALCIUM
ELEMENTS TO KNOW:
CALCIUM
CARBON
ELEMENTS TO KNOW:
CALCIUM
CARBON
CHLORINE
ELEMENTS TO KNOW:
CALCIUM
CARBON
CHLORINE
HYDROGEN
ELEMENTS TO KNOW:
CALCIUM
CARBON
CHLORINE
HYDROGEN
IRON
Latin: Ferrum
ELEMENTS TO KNOW:
CALCIUM
CARBON
CHLORINE
HYDROGEN
IRON
NITROGEN
ELEMENTS TO KNOW:
CALCIUM
CARBON
CHLORINE
HYDROGEN
IRON
NITROGEN
OXYGEN
ELEMENTS TO KNOW:
CALCIUM
CARBON
CHLORINE
HYDROGEN
IRON
NITROGEN
OXYGEN
PHOSPHOROUS
ELEMENTS TO KNOW:
Latin : kalium
CALCIUM
CARBON
CHLORINE
HYDROGEN
IRON
NITROGEN
OXYGEN
PHOSPHOROUS
POTASSIUM
ELEMENTS TO KNOW:
Latin: natrium
CALCIUM
CARBON
CHLORINE
HYDROGEN
IRON
NITROGEN
OXYGEN
PHOSPHOROUS
POTASSIUM
SODIUM
ELEMENTS TO KNOW:
CALCIUM
CARBON
Must be able to SPELL words
CHLORINE
and MATCH names with SYMBOLS.
HYDROGEN
IRON
I suggest highlighting these on
NITROGEN
Planner Pg 140 and
OXYGEN
making FLASHCARDS to study.
PHOSPHOROUS
POTASSIUM
SODIUM
C Level Unit 2 Project:
Complete the vocab study aid
for KEY TERMS from
Chapter 2 sections 1, 2, & 3
For each term, I’ve given you the textbook glossary definition.
You need to add a basic definition
PLUS an example, keyword, or picture.
Now: Do vocab, study Elements,
Oct. Bio in the News is due Monday!…
Tomorrow: We’ll have the laptops in here.
You should have time to research an A/B level U2 project!