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Transcript
•Drill: Calculate the
volume in mL of a 2.0
m by 500.0 mm by 4.00
5
x 10 mm container.
•1
3
cm
= 1 mL
Review Drill,
Grade HW &
Collect Both
CHM II HW
• Review PPs 1 – 4
• Work the attached
assignment & turn it in
tomorrow.
Are there any
questions on
previous
material?
Chapter 2
•Atoms,
Molecules, &
Ions
Atomic Theory
• Elements composed of atoms
• Atoms can’t be changed
• Compounds of multiple atoms
• John Dalton
Conservation of Mass
•In ordinary chemical
reactions, matter can
be neither created nor
destroyed
Constant
Composition
•Compounds contain
elements that are always
in the same proportions
Multiple Proportions
•The elements making
up a compound will
form whole number
ratios
Atom
•The smallest particle that
an element can be broken
down into and still
maintain the properties
of the element
Nuclear Atom
•Proved by
Rutherford & Bohr
in the famous gold
foil experiments
Atomic Composition
•Proton: in the nucleus
•Neutron: in the nucleus
•Electron: outside the
nucleus
Proton
•In Nucleus
•+1 charge
•About 1 amu in mass
Neutron
•In nucleus
•Neutral in charge
•Mass is about 1 amu
Electron
•Outside the nucleus
•-1 in charge
•Negligible mass
about 1/2000 amu
Electron Charge
•Determined by
Robert Milliken in
the famous oil
droplet experiment
Atomic Number
•The number of
protons in an
element
•Z - number
Mass Number
•The number of
protons and
neutrons in an atom
•A - number
Nuclear Symbol
A
4
X
Z
He
2
Isotopes
•Atoms that contain the
same number of protons,
but different number of
neutrons
•Z constant, A variable
Periodic Table
•Graphic representation
of all the elements
indicating size, charge,
electronic structure, &
reactivity
Periods
•Rows which
indicate energy
level or shell or
size of the atoms
Groups or Families
•Columns which indicate
the number of electrons
in the outermost energy
level determining
charge & reactivity
Metals
•Left three quarters of
the chart
•Lose electrons
•Become positive
Nonmetals
•Upper right portion
•Gain, lose, or share
electrons when they
react
Metalloids
•Along the stair-stepped
line from B to At
•Share properties of
metals & nonmetals
Compound
•A group of atoms
that are chemically
combined
Molecule
•A compound
that can exist
by itself
Drill:
Convert:
1) 23 cm/ms to
km/ns
2) 56 mg/nL to
kg/ML
Review &
Collect Drill
& HW
Are there any
questions on
previous
material?
Atomic Mass
• The weighted average mass of
all the isotopes of an element
• average of relative abundance
x mass number for each
isotope
Ion
•Charged Particle
-1
•Cl
Polyatomic Ion
•A group of atoms
chemically combined
that together has a charge
-2
-1
•SO4 or NO3
Chemical Formula
•A formula that shows the
number and kinds of
atoms in a compound
•CaCO3
Binary Compound
•A compound made up of
two elements in any ratio
•NaCl
•Mg3P2
Atomic Structure
•List & describe the
three subatomic
particles
Atomic Structure
•Fill in the Chart:
• Isotope protons neutrons electrons
• U-235
• 56
80
• 14
13
Determine the number
of of atoms in each
compound
C6H12O6
NaNO3
H3PO4
Al2(SO4)3
Diatomic Molecule
•Two atoms of the same
element that are
chemically combined
•Cl2, F2, O2
Molecular Formula
•A formula that shows
the number and kinds
of atoms in a molecule
•C6H12O6
Calculate the atomic mass of
the element made up of the
following isotopes:
99.50 % H-1
0.30 % H-2
0.20 % H-3
Calculate the atomic mass of
the element made up of the
following isotopes:
5.0 % Pu-242, 5.0 % Pu-243
80.0 % Pu-244, &
10.0 % Pu-245