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Basic Chemistry Notes II
I. Atoms are made of subatomic particles
A. Protons
1. Found in nucleus
2. Positive charge
3. The atomic number is the number of protons
B. Neutrons
1. Found in nucleus
2. No charge
3. Can be found by subtracting the atomic number from the atomic weight
C. Electrons
1. Found outside of nucleus in “shells”
2. Have a negative charge
3. Valence electrons – outermost electron shell. Most important electrons
because they determine bonding/reactivity of atom.
II. Isotopes
A. Atoms of the same element that differ in their number of neutrons
B. Example – Carbon 12, Carbon 13, and Carbon 14 are all isotopes of carbon
III. Bonding
A. Atoms bond to achieve greater stability. The “goal” of atoms is to fill their
valence shells.
B. Ionic bonds – formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one
atom to another
C. Covalent bonds – formed when atoms share electrons
IV – Van der Waals Force – Slight attraction that develops between oppositely
charged regions of nearby molecules.