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Transcript
Chemistry for Changing Times
11th Edition
Hill and Kolb
Chapter 2
Chemistry
John Singer
Jackson Community College, Jackson, MI
©2007 Prentice Hall
Atoms: The Greek Idea
~384 B.C.E., Aristotle:
All matter is
composed of 4
elements, and all
matter is continuous,
not atomistic.
Atoms: The Greek Idea
~ 450 B.C.E., Leucippus and
Democritus Atomos: Point at
which matter can no longer be
subdivided.
Lavoisier: The Law of
Conservation of Mass
• Early 1700’s Lavoisier: Law of
Conservation of Mass
– During a chemical change, matter is neither
created nor destroyed.
Lavoisier: The Law of
Conservation of Mass
Proust: The Law of Definite
Proportions
• 1799, Proust: Law of Definite
Proportions
– A compound always contains the same
elements in certain definite proportions.
Proust: The Law of Definite
Proportions
Regardless of the source, copper
carbonate has the same composition.
Proust: The Law of Definite Proportions
Berzelius experiment illustrates the Law of
Definite Proportions.
John Dalton and the Atomic Theory
of Matter
• 1803, John Dalton: Law of Multiple
Proportions
– Elements may combine in more than one set
of proportions, each set corresponds to a
different compound.
John Dalton and the Atomic Theory
of Matter
John Dalton and the Atomic Theory
of Matter
• 1. All matter is composed of extremely small
particles called atoms.
• 2. All atoms of a given element are alike and
differ from the atoms of any other element.
• 3. Compounds are formed when atoms of
different elements combine in fixed
proportions.
• 4. A chemical reaction involves the
rearrangement of atoms.
Out of Chaos: The Periodic Table
• 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev
– Mendeleev arranged the elements in order of
increasing atomic mass. He left gaps for yet
undiscovered elements. He predicted the
properties of those elements. When those
elements were eventually discovered, many
of his predictions were found to be accurate.
Out of Chaos: The Periodic Table
Out of Chaos: The Periodic Table
Atoms: Real and Relevant
Atoms are a very real concept. It is even
possible to observe computer-enhanced
images of atoms.
Leucippus Revisited: Molecules
Molecules are groups of atoms chemically
bonded together.
A molecule of water is composed of two
atoms of hydrogen (H) bonded to an atom
of oxygen (O).
H2O