Download Atoms: The building blocks of matter

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Condensed matter physics wikipedia, lookup

Stoichiometry wikipedia, lookup

Atomic theory wikipedia, lookup

Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry wikipedia, lookup

Molecular dynamics wikipedia, lookup

History of molecular theory wikipedia, lookup

IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry 2005 wikipedia, lookup

Unbinilium wikipedia, lookup

Ununennium wikipedia, lookup

Rutherford backscattering spectrometry wikipedia, lookup

Isotopic labeling wikipedia, lookup

Chemical thermodynamics wikipedia, lookup

Electron configuration wikipedia, lookup

Extended periodic table wikipedia, lookup

Chemical bond wikipedia, lookup

Tennessine wikipedia, lookup

History of chemistry wikipedia, lookup

Chemistry: A Volatile History wikipedia, lookup

Inorganic chemistry wikipedia, lookup

Chemical element wikipedia, lookup

Dubnium wikipedia, lookup

Oganesson wikipedia, lookup

Seaborgium wikipedia, lookup

Abundance of the chemical elements wikipedia, lookup

The Atom: From Philosophical
Idea to Scientific Theory
Democritus was one of first to propose the
idea of a basic particle of matter (400 B.C.)
 Called it the atom (means indivisible in Greek).
Aristotle lived after Democritus (300 B.C.),
but believed in all matter being continuous.
 Aristotle’s view was accepted until the late 1700s.
 No solid evidence existed to support Aristotle’s
Foundations of Atomic Theory
As technology improved, so did scientific
In the 1790s, improvements in balances
enabled scientists to accurately measure
masses of substances they were studying.
This led to three new laws:
○ The law of conservation of mass.
○ The law of definite proportions.
○ The law of multiple proportions.
The Law of Conservation of Mass
Mass is neither created nor destroyed
during ordinary chemical reactions or
physical changes.
The Law of Definite Proportions
A chemical compound contains the
same elements in exactly the same
proportions by mass regardless of the
size of the sample or source of the
11.9% hydrogen
88.1% oxygen
11.9% hydrogen
88.1% oxygen
The Law of Multiple Proportions
If two or more different compounds are
composed of the same two elements,
then the ratio of the masses of the
second element combined with a certain
mass of the first element is always a
ratio of small whole numbers.
Dalton’s Atomic Theory
In 1808, John Dalton proposed an explanation for the
 All matter is made up of small particles (atoms).
 Every element has atoms that are unique for that element and
 Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed.
 Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number
ratios to form chemical compounds.
 In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or
Modern Atomic Theory
Changes to Dalton’s Theory
 Atoms ARE divisible (nuclear reactions).
 Atoms of a given element CAN have
different masses (isotopes).
Putting it all together…
Why were Dalton’s ideas accepted and
not Aristotle or Democritus’?
What laws did Dalton explain using his