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Transcript
Atoms and Matter
Today’s Objectives
Understand the components of the atom.
 Be able to explain the parts of the atom and
their relationship to each other.

Here’s the hint
Slides with this color background mean you
just have to listen and ask/answer questions.
 Unless….the text is written in this color.
Then you need to write the text down.

Slides that look like this
This means the entire slide needs to be
copied Cornell note style.
 Any questions?
 I have one…….

Cornell Notes you ask?

Divide the paper
into One third and
two third sections.

Name, Class/Period,
Date go in the upper
right corner.
Topic/Objective in the
upper left

Cornell Notes
Questions and key
points go on the
left.
 Class notes go on
the right.
 A review summary
is located at the
bottom.

The Cornell method
•
systematic format for condensing and organizing notes
• main ideas of the text or lecture
• long ideas are paraphrased
• long sentences are avoided
• symbols or abbreviations are used instead
• relevant questions or key words are written in the key word
column
• Within 24 hours of taking the notes, the student must revise
and write questions and then write a brief summary in the
bottom five to seven lines of the page This helps to increase
understanding of the topic
• Helps when studying for either a test or quizWhen reviewing
the material, the student can cover the note-taking (right)
column while attempting to answer the questions/keywords in
the key word or cue (left) column.
Effectiveness
A study published in 2008 by Wichita State
University compared two note taking methods
Cornell and guided.
They found that Cornell Note taking are more
effective for students improvement of
synthesis and apply learned knowledge
while the guided notes method appeared to be
better for basic recall.
Enough of that nonsense lets get back to the
atom!
Vocabulary




Atomic mass
Atomic number
Atomic symbol
Nucleus






Atom
Electron
Proton
Neutron
Element
Energy levels, Orbitals,
Electron Cloud
History of the Atom
Going back as far as 400 BCE.
 Greek philosophers suggested that the
universe was made of small invisible
particles they named atomos.
 Atomos is Greek and means unable to be
divided (loose translation).

History of the Atom
It wasn’t until around 1700 CE that
scientists began a more intense investigation
 Making careful and repeated measurements
 Resulting in more reliable data

1808

Then in 1808 an English schoolteacher by
the name of John Dalton developed his
atomic theory.
Dalton’s Atomic Theory:
Atoms cannot be divided.
 Atoms of the same element are exactly alike.
 Atoms of different elements can join to form
compounds. (Like hydrogen and oxygen
forming, H2O).
 Most of his theories still hold true today except
one: we now know that an atom is made of
three parts.

Atoms
We know are the building blocks of
molecules
 Are the smallest part of an element that still
keep the properties of the element. (What is
an element?)
 Pure chemical substance consisting of
one type of atom (determined by the #
of protons).

But What Is an Atom?
Atoms are the basic unit of matter and
consist of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons.
 Remember I said that almost all of Dalton’s
Atomic Theory held true.
 Based on what you know which one didn’t?
 Hint: refer to your notes on his theory.

Proton
Positively charged
 Resides in the nucleus (atom’s central
region)
 Has a mass of 1.67x10-27

Neutron
No charge
 Similar to proton in that it resides in the
nucleus
 Also similar in mass of the proton at
1.67x10-27

Nucleus
Central region of the atom
 Made of Protons and Neutrons

Nucleus of a Helium Atom
+
+
Electron
Negative charge
 Much less massive than either the proton or
neutron
 Mass = 9.11x10-31
 Does not reside in the nucleus
 Freely moves around the nucleus in an
energy level.

Electrons
This is where it becomes confusing.
 The electron moves in an orbital path
around the nucleus.
 If I were to draw the path it would look like
a ring around the nucleus.
 Important to note that the path is actually a
shell around the nucleus, like a cloud.

Two Dimensional Drawing of a
Helium Atom
-
++
-
Electrons





Electrons occupy areas called orbitals, electron
clouds, and energy levels.
Orbital, electron cloud, and energy level all refer
to the area where the electron “lives”. The path of
the electron.
All of those are the same thing, the path the
electron follows around the nucleus.
If the nucleus of the atom was the size of a marble
then the size of the whole atom (including electron
cloud) would be the size of a football field.
That’s how far away the electron is from the
nucleus.
Take a Breather
Lot’s of info passed on.
 Everyone get up circle the room once and
go back to your seat. Say ‘hi’ to someone as
you pass them.
 Are there any questions?
 It’s going to get a little more intense.

Atoms, The Make-up
Particle
Charge
Mass(kg)
Location in
Atom
Proton
+1
1.67x10-27
Nucleus
Neutron
0
1.67x10-27
Nucleus
Electron
-1
9.11x10-31
Moving
around
outside the
Nucleus
Atomic charge

Important to note:
 Atoms are electrically neutral.
 The number of positive subatomic
particles matches the number of negative
subatomic particles.
 What are the subatomic positive and
negative particles?
Revisit Today’s Vocabulary







Atom
Element
Proton
Neutron
Nucleus
Electron
Energy levels,
Orbitals, Electron
Cloud
Let’s end it there for today.
Do you know the parts to the atom?
 How about their relationship to each other?
 Good! Then your homework is to write a
Haiku about it.

Example
You must also write your sentences connecting the
haiku and border to the content. The instructions
are on page 6 in your notebook.
Physical Science
Brain Teaser






This is your warm-up for today.
Get your homework ready to be checked.
Please write down the question and answer on a left hand
page of your notebook.
Also write the date, your name, and the title “Brainteaser
#1” on the top of the page.
Update this in your table of contents
Here is the question:
 Explain the relationship between the parts of an atom.
We Have Identified Seven of the
Vocabulary Words
Which Ones?
What Did We Do Last Class?





We looked at atoms.
In particularly the three parts.
The positive:
• Proton.
The neutral:
• Neutron.
Finally, the negative:
• Electron.
What Else?
Where do each “live”. Where do they make
their homes?
 What other vocabulary words do you
remember?

Here’s the List




Atomic mass
Atomic number
Atomic symbol
Nucleus






Electron
Proton
Neutron
Atom
Element
Energy levels,
Orbital, Electron
Cloud
Today’s Objective:
Know how to construct a model/diagram of
an atom, labeling each part.
Essential Question
 How do you make a model or diagram of
what an atom looks like including the
labels?

Energy Levels
Energy levels are paths for the electrons.
 A Danish scientist named Niels Bohr
suggested that electrons in an atom move in
set paths around the nucleus of the atom.
 The path defines the electrons energy level.
 Only a certain number of electrons can
occupy, or reside, in a certain energy level.

Picture a Building
Energy Levels
The basement is where the nucleus is
 Each floor is an energy level
 The elevator (electron) can gain energy and
move from a lower level to a higher level
 Or the elevator (electron) can lose energy
and move down a level
 But the electron cannot get stuck between
floors (levels)

Energy Levels

Also only a certain number of electrons can
fit on each floor (energy level)
Energy Levels
4th energy level
Can hold 32 electrons
 3rd energy level can
hold 18 electrons
 2nd energy level can
hold 8 electrons
 1st energy level can
hold only 2 electrons

Electron Car
Nucleus
Energy Levels A Good Example
Why Is This a Bad Example of
Energy Levels?
Vocabulary Revisited




Atomic mass
Atomic number
Atomic symbol
Nucleus






Electron
Proton
Neutron
Atom
Element
Energy levels,
Orbitals, Electron
Clouds
What Is Left?




Atomic mass.
Atomic number.
Atomic symbol.
How do I find these? Not just the definitions
but where do I actually find the information.
Back to the Atom
Have you ever heard of the periodic table of
elements?
 It’s filled with symbols numbers all
arranged in a certain way.

Periodic Table
The Periodic Table



Tells you an elements atomic mass.
 Sum of the number of protons, neutrons in the
atom.
Tells you the atomic number.
 The number of protons in the nucleus of the
atom.
Gives you the atomic symbol.
 The atomic symbol is how we recognize the
element, it’s the letter(s) given to the element.
Like H for hydrogen.
Looking Deeper




Atomic
Number
Atomic
Symbol
Atomic name
Atomic mass
6
C
Carbon
12.0107
Periodic Table
Finally, It’s Over

Let’s take one final look at our new
vocabulary
New Vocabulary




Atomic mass
Atomic number
Atomic symbol
Nucleus






Electron
Proton
Neutron
Atom
Element
Energy levels,
Orbitals, Electron
Clouds.
That’s All Folks





What happened today?
What were we doing and why?
I think I will volunteer someone to describe all
the information we can gather by looking at
sodium on the periodic table of elements.
Go up to the screen and use the meterstick to
guide us as you explain the numbers and
symbols.
The class doesn't get off scott free, you have to
correct if necessary.
Sodium (Na)
11
Na
Sodium
22.99
Homework

T-Shirt Art for
Hydrogen or an
element of your
choice.
Example
You are still responsible for the 2 paragraphs. The
instructions are on page nine of your notebook.
The End
This has been
An
Irish stew
Production