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Transcript
Nuclear Radiation
Radioactivity
As the heavier atoms become
more unstable, particles and
photons are emitted from the
nucleus and it is said to be
radioactive. All elements with
Atomic # greater than 82 are
radioactive.
a
bb+
g
Alpha particles a
b- particles (electrons)
Gamma rays g
(sometimes positrons)
The Alpha Particle
An alpha particle a is the nucleus of a helium
atom consisting of two protons and two
neutrons tightly bound.
Relatively low speeds
Not very penetrating
The Beta-minus Particle
A beta-minus particle b- is simply an electron
that has been expelled from the nucleus.
-
High speeds
Very penetrating
The Gamma Photon
A gamma ray g has very high electromagnetic
radiation carrying energy away from the
nucleus.
g
g
g
Very fast
g
Most penetrating radiation
Radioactive Decay
If the ratio of neutrons/protons gets very large,
the nucleus becomes unstable and often particles
and/or photons are emitted.
.
4
2
a
The half-life T1/2 of
an isotope is the
time in which onehalf of its unstable
nuclei will decay.
1
N  N0  
2
n
Where n is number
of half-lives
Number Undecayed Nuclei
The Half-Life
No
N0
2
N0
4
1 2 3 4
Number of Half-lives