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Transcript
Radioactivity and the Four
Forces
Chapter 9, Section 1, Page 258 – 262
Monroe
12/01/08
Chapter 9, Section 1, Page 258 – 262
An atom is made up of three things.
1
A proton
i.
The number of protons is the ATOMIC
NUMBER
ii.
Protons are made up of quarks
iii.
Protons have a positive one charge
(+1), exactly
A Neutron
i.
The number of neutrons is determined by
subtracting the atomic number (see
above) from the atomic mass
(higher number), which follows the “-“
symbol of atoms
ii.
Neutrons are also made up of quarks
iii.
Neutrons have a charge of exactly “0”.
They are neutral
iv.
The number of neutrons, plus the number
of protons, equals the atomic mass
number.
An Electron
i.
An almost massless particle
ii.
Charge of exactly negative one (-1)
The Nucleus of an atom has a huge collection of positive
particles in it. Why does it not blow itself apart (since similar
charges repel, and all the protons have the same charge)?
The answer is the
STRONG NUCLEAR
FORCE.
Four Forces of Nature
Gravity ~ weakest of all. Almost nothing is known about it. It
is probably carried by a particle called a graviton.
Weak Nuclear force ~ keeps atoms from changing
elements.
Electromagnetic ~ combination of electricity and
magnetism. It is carried by the interaction of the
electrical/magnetic fields.
Strong Nuclear ~ holds the atom together. This is the
strongest of all of the forces, and is the one broken with
nuclear reactions.
http://aether.lbl.gov/www/tour/elements/stellar/strong/strong.h
tml
Alpha radiation
failure of the strong nuclear force
transmutation of the original element
mother and daughter elements
the radiation is a helium nucleus
At this point, the probable, singular, strong nuclear
force attraction of a single proton or neutron is
overwhelmed by the collective force of the weaker, but
multiplicative, force of the electromagnetic.
Beta radiation,
Failure of the weak nuclear
force.
Neutrons become protons, so
electrons must be “made” so
that law of conservation of
charge is maintained.
Beta radiation is electrons.
Gamma radiation is very, very energetic
electromagnetic waves (light and photons).
Because we cannot shield astro”people”, gamma radiation is the
reason that Mars is out of picture.
Kinda
how a
geiger
counter
works
Demonstration of a “mousetrap” nuclear demonstration
http://www.energyforeducators.org/snavigation/nuclear.sh
tml